5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- confirmation bias
- a the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
- b a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
- c a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
- d the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
- e the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
5 Multiple choice questions
- a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
- a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
- beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
- in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
- clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
5 True/False questions
heuristic → a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
algorithm → a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
representativeness heuristic → estimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
functional fixedness → the tendency to be more certain than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
framing → in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.