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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. two-word stage
  2. language
  3. prototype
  4. phoneme
  5. syntax
  1. a in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
  2. b the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
  3. c beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
  4. d a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
  5. e our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. the tendency to be more certain than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
  2. judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
  3. Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
  4. the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
  5. a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.

5 True/False questions

  1. belief perseverancethe tendency to be more certain than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.


  2. concepta mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.


  3. fixationthe way an issue is posed; how an issue is presented can significantly affect decisions and judgments.


  4. creativitythe ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.


  5. confirmation bias(1) the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.


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