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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. prototype
  2. creativity
  3. confirmation bias
  4. syntax
  5. semantics
  1. a the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
  2. b a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
  3. c a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
  4. d the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
  5. e the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
  2. a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
  3. beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly statements made up of only a couple of words.
  4. in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
  5. clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

5 True/False questions

  1. heuristica simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.


  2. algorithma methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.


  3. representativeness heuristicestimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.


  4. functional fixednessthe tendency to be more certain than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.


  5. framingin a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.


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