chapter 32 - animals 1

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1) Most animals exhibit the following structures or functions except
A) nervous and muscle tissue.
B) unique types of intercellular junctions, such as tight junctions and gap junctions.
C) autotrophic nutrition.
D) sexual reproduction.
E) multicellularity.

C) autotrophic nutrition.

2) Which of the following terms or structures is not associated with animals? A) eukaryotic
B) cell wall
C) desmosome
D) zygote
E) blastula

B) cell wall

3) A researcher is trying to construct a molecular-based phylogeny of the entire animal kingdom. Assuming that none of the following genes is absolutely conserved, which of the following would be the best choice on which to base the phylogeny?
A) genes involved in chitin synthesis
B) collagen genes
C) crystallin genes
D) myosin genes
E) globin genes

B) collagen genes

4) Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive their nutrition
A) from organic matter.
B) by preying on animals.
C) by ingesting it.
D) by consuming living, rather than dead, prey.
E) by using enzymes to digest their food.

C) by ingesting it.

5) The young of some insects are merely small versions of the adult, whereas the larvae of other insects look completely different from adults, eat different foods, and may live in different habitats. Which of the following most directly favors the evolution of the latter more radical kind of metamorphosis? A) natural selection of sexually immature forms of insects
B) changes in the homeobox genes governing early development
C) the evolution of meiosis
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C

B) changes in the homeobox genes governing early development

6) What is the correct sequence of the following four events during an animal's development?
1. gastrulation
2. metamorphosis
3. fertilization
4. cleavage
A) 4, 3, 2, 1
B) 4, 3, 1, 2
C) 3, 2, 4, 1
D) 3, 4, 2, 1
E) 3, 4, 1, 2

E) 3, 4, 1, 2
3. fertilization
4. cleavage
1. gastrulation
2. metamorphosis

7) At which stage would one be able to first distinguish a diploblastic embryo from a triploblastic embryo?
A) fertilization
B) cleavage
C) gastrulation
D) organogenesis
E) metamorphosis

C) gastrulation

8) Which of the following is not unique to animals?
A) cells that have tight junctions, desmosomes, or gap junctions
B) the structural protein collagen
C) nervous conduction and muscular movement
D) regulatory genes called Hox genes
E) sexual reproduction

E) sexual reproduction

9) The number of legs an insect has, or the number of vertebrae in a vertebral column, or the number of joints in a digit (such as a finger) are all strongly influenced by ________ genes.
A) haploid
B) introns within
C) heterotic
D) heterogeneous
E) Hox

E) Hox

10) What should animals as diverse as corals and monkeys have in common?
A) body cavity between body wall and digestive system
B) number of embryonic tissue layers
C) type of body symmetry
D) presence of Hox genes
E) degree of cephalization

D) presence of Hox genes

11) What may have occurred to prevent species that are of the same grade from also belonging to the same clade?
A) similar structures arising independently in different lineages
B) convergent evolution among different lineages
C) adaptation by different lineages to the same selective pressures
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

C) adaptation by different lineages to the same selective pressures

12) The Hox genes came to regulate each of the following in what sequence, from earliest to most recent?
1. identity and position of paired appendages in protostome embryos
2. formation of channels in sponges
3. anterior-posterior orientation of segments in protostome embryos
4. positioning of tentacles in cnidarians
5. anterior-posterior orientation of somites in vertebrate embryos
A) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5
B) 4, 2, 3, 1, 5
C) 4, 2, 5, 3, 1
D) 2, 4, 5, 3, 1
E) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5

E) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5
2. formation of channels in sponges
4. positioning of tentacles in cnidarians
3. anterior-posterior orientation of segments in protostome embryos
1. identity and position of paired appendages in protostome embryos
5. anterior-posterior orientation of somites in vertebrate embryos

13) Almost all of the major animal body plans seen today appeared in the fossil record over 500 million years ago at the beginning of the
A) Cambrian period.
B) Ediacaran period.
C) Permian period.
D) Carboniferous period.
E) Cretaceous period.

A) Cambrian period.

14) Evidence of which structure or characteristic would be most surprising to find among fossils of the Ediacaran fauna?
A) true tissues
B) mineralized hard parts
C) bilateral symmetry
D) cephalization
E) embryos

B) mineralized hard parts

15) Which statement is most consistent with the hypothesis that the Cambrian explosion was caused by the rise of predator-prey relationships? A) increased incidence of worm burrows in the fossil record
B) increased incidence of larger animals in the fossil record
C) increased incidence of organic material in the fossil record
D) increased incidence of fern galls in the fossil record
E) increased incidence of hard parts in the fossil record

E) increased incidence of hard parts in the fossil record

16) Which of these genetic processes may be most helpful in accounting for the Cambrian explosion?
A) binary fission
B) mitosis
C) random segregation
D) gene duplication
E) chromosomal condensation

D) gene duplication

17) Whatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime example of
A) anagenesis (phyletic evolution).
B) evolutionary stasis.
C) adaptive radiation.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

C) adaptive radiation.

18) Fossil evidence indicates that the following events occurred in what sequence, from earliest to most recent?
1. Protostomes invade terrestrial environments.
2. Cambrian explosion occurs.
3. Deuterostomes invade terrestrial environments.
4. Vertebrates become top predators in the seas.
A) 2, 4, 3, 1
B) 2, 1, 4, 3
C) 2, 4, 1, 3
D) 2, 3, 1, 4
E) 2, 1, 3, 4

C) 2, 4, 1, 3
2. Cambrian explosion occurs.
4. Vertebrates become top predators in the seas.
1. Protostomes invade terrestrial environments.
3. Deuterostomes invade terrestrial environments.

19) If one encounters the deepest stratum in which aquatic and flying reptiles can be found, then one has likely found a stratum that was laid during which era?
A) Mesozoic
B) Paleozoic
C) Cenozoic
D) Neoproterozoic
E) Precambrian

A) Mesozoic

20) What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of animals originated, from earliest to most recent?
1. tetrapods
2. vertebrates
3. deuterostomes
4. amniotes
5. bilaterians
A) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
B) 5, 3, 2, 1, 4
C) 5, 3, 4, 2, 1
D) 3, 5, 4, 2, 1
E) 3, 5, 2, 1,4

B) 5, 3, 2, 1, 4
5. bilaterians
3. deuterostomes
2. vertebrates
1. tetrapods
4. amniotes

21) During which era did the greatest radiation of mammals occur?
A) Mesozoic
B) Paleozoic
C) Cenozoic
D) Neoproterozoic
E) Precambrian

C) Cenozoic

22) The major branches of Eumetazoa are the Radiata and the Bilateria. These names refer to what characteristic of these animals?
A) size
B) body symmetry
C) embryonic cleavage
D) types of appendages
E) presence or absence of a nucleus in their cells

B) body symmetry

23) Organisms showing radial symmetry would likely
A) be good swimmers.
B) have rapid escape behavior.
C) move from place to place relatively slowly, if at all.
D) be able to fly.
E) have many fins.

C) move from place to place relatively slowly, if at all.

24) During metamorphosis, echinoderms undergo a transformation from motile larvae to a sedentary (and sometimes sessile) existence as adults. What is true of adults, but not of larvae? Adults should
A) be diploblastic.
B) have radial symmetry.
C) lack mesodermally derived tissues.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

B) have radial symmetry.

25) Cephalization is primarily associated with
A) adaptation to dark environments.
B) method of reproduction.
C) fate of the blastopore.
D) type of digestive system.
E) bilateral symmetry.

E) bilateral symmetry.

26) Cephalization is generally associated with all of the following except
A) bilateral symmetry.
B) concentration of sensory structures at the anterior end.
C) a brain.
D) a longitudinal nerve cord.
E) a sessile existence.

E) a sessile existence.

27) Which of the following is an incorrect association of an animal germ layer with the tissues or organs to which it gives rise?
A) ectoderm-outer covering
B) endoderm-internal lining of digestive tract
C) mesoderm-nervous system
D) mesoderm-muscle
E) endoderm-internal linings of liver and lungs

C) mesoderm-nervous system

28) You are trying to identify an organism. It is an animal, but it does not have nerve or muscle tissue. It is neither diploblastic nor triploblastic. It is probably a
A) flatworm.
B) jelly.
C) comb jelly.
D) sponge.
E) nematode.

D) sponge.

29) What is the main basis for placing the arthropods and nematodes in the Ecdysozoa in one hypothesis of animal phylogeny?
A) Animals in both groups are segmented.
B) Animals in both groups undergo ecdysis.
C) They both have radial, determinate cleavage, and their embryonic development is similar.
D) The fossil record has revealed a common ancestor to these two phyla.
E) Analysis of genes shows that their sequences are quite similar, and these sequences differ from those of the lophotrochozoans and deuterostomes.

E) Analysis of genes shows that their sequences are quite similar, and these sequences differ from those of the lophotrochozoans and deuterostomes.

30) Which of the following combinations of phylum and description is incorrect?
A) Echinodermata-branch of Bilateria, coelom forms from archenteron
B) Nematoda-roundworms, pseudocoelomate
C) Cnidaria-radial symmetry, diploblastic
D) Platyhelminthes-flatworms, acoelomates
E) Porifera-coelomates, mouth from blastopore

E) Porifera-coelomates, mouth from blastopore

31) Which of the following subdivisions of the animal kingdom encompasses all the others in the list?
A) Protostomia
B) Bilateria
C) Radiata
D) Eumetazoa
E) Deuterostomia

D) Eumetazoa

32) Bilateral symmetry in the animal kingdom is best correlated with
A) an ability to sense equally in all directions.
B) the presence of a skeleton.
C) motility and active predation and escape.
D) development of a true coelom.
E) adaptation to terrestrial environments.

C) motility and active predation and escape.

33) Acoelomates are characterized by
A) the absence of a brain.
B) the absence of mesoderm.
C) deuterostome development.
D) a coelom that is not completely lined with mesoderm.
E) a solid body without a cavity surrounding internal organs.

E) a solid body without a cavity surrounding internal organs.

34) The distinction between the sponges and other animal phyla is based mainly on the absence versus the presence of
A) a body cavity.
B) a complete digestive tract.
C) true tissues.
D) a circulatory system.
E) mesoderm.

C) true tissues.

35) Organisms that are neither coelomate nor pseudocoelomate should, apart from their digestive systems, have bodies that
A) are solid with tissue.
B) lack the ability to metabolize food.
C) are incapable of muscular contraction.
D) lack true tissues.
E) lack mesodermally derived tissues.

A) are solid with tissue.

36) What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal is that coelomates
A) have a body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have a solid body.
B) contain tissues derived from mesoderm, whereas pseudocoelomates have no such tissue.
C) have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.
D) have a complete digestive system with mouth and anus, whereas pseudocoelomates have a digestive tract with only one opening.
E) have a gut that lacks suspension within the body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have mesenteries that hold the digestive system in place.

C) have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.

37) Which of the following functions is an advantage of a fluid-filled body cavity?
A) Internal organs are cushioned and protected from injury.
B) Organs can grow and move independently of the outer body wall.
C) The cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton.
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C

E) A, B, and C
A) Internal organs are cushioned and protected from injury.
B) Organs can grow and move independently of the outer body wall.
C) The cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton.

38) You have before you a living organism, which you examine carefully. Which of the following should convince you that the organism is an acoelomate?
A) It responds to food by moving toward it.
B) It is triploblastic.
C) It has bilateral symmetry.
D) It possesses sensory structures at its anterior end.
E) Muscular activity of its digestive system distorts the body wall.

E) Muscular activity of its digestive system distorts the body wall.

39) An animal that swims rapidly in search of prey that it captures using visual senses concentrated at its anterior end is likely to be all of the following except
A) bilaterally symmetrical.
B) coelomate.
C) eumetazoan.
D) diploblastic.
E) cephalized.

D) diploblastic.

40) The blastopore is a structure that is evident in the
A) zygote.
B) blastula.
C) eight-cell embryo.
D) gastrula.
E) egg and sperm.

D) gastrula.

41) The blastopore denotes the presence of an endoderm-lined cavity in the developing embryo, a cavity that is known as the
A) archenteron.
B) blastula.
C) coelom.
D) germ layer.
E) blastocoel.

A) archenteron.

42) Which of the following is descriptive of protostomes?
A) spiral and indeterminate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth, schizocoelous development
B) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth, schizocoelous development
C) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus, enterocoelous development
D) radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore anus, becomes enterocoelous development
E) radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth, schizocoelous development

B) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth, schizocoelous development

43) Which of the following characteristics generally applies to protostome development?
A) radial cleavage
B) determinate cleavage
C) enterocoelous
D) blastopore becomes the anus
E) archenteron absent

B) determinate cleavage

44) Protostome characteristics include all of the following except
A) a mouth that develops from the blastopore.
B) schizocoelous development.
C) spiral cleavage.
D) indeterminate cleavage.
E) solid masses of mesodermal tissue that split and form the body cavity.

D) indeterminate cleavage.

45) Why are annelids, arthropods, and molluscs placed in the same clade?
A) They are triploblastic.
B) They are protostomes.
C) They are bilaterally symmetrical.
D) They are coelomates.
E) They are deuterostomes.

B) They are protostomes.

46) At the phylum level, you are most closely related to a(n)
A) clam.
B) sea star.
C) earthworm.
D) jelly.
E) planarian.

B) sea star.

47) Protostomes exhibit ________ cleavage; deuterostomes exhibit ________ cleavage.
A) radial and spiral; determinate and indeterminate
B) radial and indeterminate; spiral and determinate
C) radial and determinate; spiral and indeterminate
D) spiral and determinate; radial and indeterminate
E) spiral and indeterminate; radial and determinate

D) spiral and determinate; radial and indeterminate

48) The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having A) radial or bilateral symmetry.
B) a well-defined head or no head.
C) diploblastic or triploblastic embryos.
D) true tissues or no tissues.
E) a body cavity or no body cavity.

D) true tissues or no tissues.

49) With the current molecular-based phylogeny in mind, rank the following from most inclusive to least inclusive.
1. ecdysozoan
2. protostome
3. eumetazoan
4. triploblastic
A) 4, 2, 3, 1
B) 4, 3, 1, 2
C) 3, 4, 1, 2
D) 3, 4, 2, 1
E) 4, 3, 2, 1

D) 3, 4, 2, 1
3. eumetazoan
4. triploblastic
2. protostome
1. ecdysozoan

50) What does recent evidence from molecular systematics reveal about the r elationship between grades and clades?
A) They are one and the same.
B) There is no relationship.
C) Some, but not all, grades reflect evolutionary relatedness.
D) Grades have their basis in, and flow from, clades.
E) Each branch point on a cladogram is associated with the evolution of a new grade.

C) Some, but not all, grades reflect evolutionary relatedness.

51) Echinoderms are
A) deuterstomes.
B) parazoans.
C) protostomes.
D) radiata.
E) acoelomates.

A) deuterstomes.

52) What kind of data should probably have the greatest impact on animal taxonomy in the coming decades?
A) fossil evidence
B) comparative morphology of living species
C) nucleotide sequences of homologous genes
D) similarities in metabolic pathways
E) the number and size of chromosomes within nuclei

C) nucleotide sequences of homologous genes

53) Phylogenetic trees are best described as
A) true and inerrant statements about evolutionary relationships.
B) hypothetical portrayals of evolutionary relationships.
C) the most accurate representations possible of genetic relationships among taxa.
D) theories of evolution.
E) the closest things to absolute certainty that modern systematics can produce.

B) hypothetical portrayals of evolutionary relationships.

54) According to the evidence collected so far, the animal kingdom is 12
A) monophyletic.
B) paraphyletic.
C) polyphyletic.
D) euphyletic.
E) multiphyletic.

A) monophyletic.

55) The common ancestor of all animals was probably a
A) bacterium.
B) prokaryote.
C) plant.
D) fungus.
E) protist.

E) protist.

56) If a multicellular animal lacks true tissues, then it can be classified among the
A) eumetazoans.
B) metazoans.
C) protozoans.
D) lophotrochozoans.
E) hydrozoans.

B) metazoans.

57) According to both the molecular- and morphology-based animal phylogenies, the following are all protostomes except
A) molluscs.
B) echinoderms.
C) segmented worms.
D) insects.
E) spiders.

B) echinoderms.

58) Which of the following organisms are deuterostomes?
A) molluscs
B) annelids
C) echinoderms
D) chordates
E) both C and D (although klenks answer is B & C)

E) both C and D (although his answer is B & C)

59) Which of the following statements concerning animal taxonomy is (are) true? 1. Animals are more closely related to plants than to fungi.
2. All animal clades based on body plan have been found to be incorrect.
3. Kingdom Animalia is monophyletic.
4. Only animals reproduce by sexual means.
5. Animals are thought to have evolved from flagellated protists similar to modern choanoflagellates.
A) 5
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 4
D) 3, 5
E) 3, 4, 5

D) 3, 5
3. Kingdom Animalia is monophyletic.
5. Animals are thought to have evolved from flagellated protists similar to modern choanoflagellates.

60) If the current molecular evidence regarding animal origins is well substantiated in the future, then what will be true of any contrary evidence regarding the origin of animals derived from the fossil record?
A) The contrary fossil evidence will be seen as a hoax.
B) The fossil evidence will be understood to have been incorrect because it is Incomplete.
C) The fossil record will be ignored.
D) Phylogenies involving even the smallest bit of fossil evidence will need to be discarded.
E) Only phylogenies based solely on fossil evidence will need to be discarded.

B) The fossil evidence will be understood to have been incorrect because it is Incomplete.

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