endocrinology

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pituitary gland, hypophysis

secretes hormones that govern hormonal secretions of the other endocrine glands, controlled by the hypothalamus the master gland

adrenal gland (suprarenal gland)

above the kidneys

adrenal cortex

secretes corticosteroids: sex hormones mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoiods, outer region

adrenal medulla

epinephrine (adrenaline) noreephinephrine (noradrenaline) Fight or flight response, sympathetic nervous system (inner region)

hypocalcemia

an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood

genesis

forming

glucogenesis

formatin of glucose

glucosuria, glycosuria

abnormal presence of glucose in the urine

gonads

sex glands

homeostasis

state of equilibrium

kal

potassium

kalemia

prescence of potassium in the blood

thym

thymus gland, important in immune response in children

thymitis

inflamation of the thymus gland

thyromegaly

enlargement of the thyroid gland also called a goiter

endocrine

to excrete (-crine) internally or within ? denotes a ductless gland that furnishes an internal secretion

exo

outside, outward

exocrine

to secrete outwardly ............. denotes a gland that secretes outwardly through excretory ducts

hypokalemia

lower than normal levels of potassuim in the blood

poly

many much

polydipsia

excessive thirst

pancreas

insulin and glucagon produced by the islets of Langerhans (what organ)

parathyroid gland

4 glands superior pair & inferior pair, that produce PTH parathyroid hormone , calcium and phosphate levels

PTH (parathyroid hormone

helps maintain homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by stimulating the bones intestines and kidneys

mineralocorticoids

regulatiion of the electrolyte (mineral salts) concentration in extracellular fluid

glucocorticoids

mainly cortisol help promote normal metabolism.resistance to stress and counterinflammaatory response

Glucagon

produced by the alpha cells stimulates liver ti break down glycogen and amino acids into glucose increases glucose levels

insulin

stimulates the liver to form glycogen from glucose lowers blood sugar

beta cells

after a meal blood glucose rises and ............ release insulin

as insulin level is decreasing

glucogen increases

glucagon and insulin

............and .....................work together to maintain a relatively stable blood glucose concentration

female gonads

ovaries are ?

ovaries produce

estrogen and progesterone adrenal glands,play an important role in preparing the uterus for implantation of fertilized egg. and maintaining pregnancy

testes

produces spermatozoa and testosterone

pineal gland

may secrete melatonin not sure what it does

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 1

occurs mostly in children and adolescents and may be associates with a genetic predisposition. destruction of beta cells of the islets of Langerhans with complete insulin deficiency in the body

non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitis

later in life risk factors family history and obesity insulin produced but body insensitive to insulin

hyperglycemia

abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood

hypoglycemia

deficiency of glucose in the blood

gestational diabetes

diabetes during pregnancy

anterior pituitary gland

glandular:helps body resist stress (ACTH), regulates function of reproductive organs (FSH), (LH), stimulates growth of bones and muscles, stimulates normal development of and secretion of thyroid

stimulates growth of bones and muscles

water balance

cretinism

hypo secretion of thyroid hormone during childhood

myxedema

hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during adulthood. (don't confuse with giantism)

what is the main function of the thyroid gland

regulate metabolism, produces T3 and T4 and calcitonin

acromegaly

Chronic metabolic disease of middle-ged and older persons. It is characterized by enlatged features particularly of the face hands and extremities. Over production of the growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland

giantism

An abnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of the body from hypersecretion of the pituitary gland GH. as a baby

diabetes mellitus

disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by beta cells inpancreas or defects of insulin receptors in cells.

diuresis

increased formation and secretion of urine

dwarfism

the condition of being abnormally small hyposecretion of the pituitary gland at birth

exophthalmos

protrusion of eyeballs often a sign of hyperthyroidism

glucosuria, glycosuria

abnormal presence of glucose in the urine resulting from the ingestion of large amounts of carbohydrates or from kidney disease such as nephrosis or from a metabolic disease such as diabetes mellitius.

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland poss. due to iodine in the diet etc.

Graves disease

hyperthyroidism also called toxic goiter characterized by goiter and exophthalmos and may be due to autoimmune reaction to yhyroid tissue.

hyperkalemia

excessive amount of potassium in the blood

hyponatremia

a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood

ketosis

the abnormal accumulation of ketones in the body as a result of excessive breakdown of fats caused by a deficiency or inadequate intake of carbohydrates. Fatty acids are metabolized instead and the end products ketones begin to accumulate.

myxedema

the most severe form of hypothyroidism , swelling of hands, face, feet and preorbital around the eyes. (not pituitary) in adults associated with hypothyroidism

polyuria

excretion of an abnormally amount of urine

thyrotoxicosis

also known as a goiter

blood sugar test

measures the level of glucose in the blood

electrolytes measurement of

measurement of the level of ions: sodium, potassium, CO2 and chloride in the blood

fasting blood sugar (FBS)

measure level of glucose in the blood after a 12-hour test

lobectomy

excision of a lobe of an organ

corticosteroids

drugs used to treat inflammatory illnesses including arthritis, asthma, and dermatitis. Also used as replacement hormones for adrenal insufficiency (Addison Disease)

oxytocins

agents that stimulate the uterus to contract inducing labor

gonadotropins

follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

pituitary

giantism and dwarfism are a result of umproper function of what gland

thyrotomy

incision of the thyroid gland

cretinism, myxedema, Graves Disease, goiter, pituitary, giantisim, pituitary dwarfism , acromegaly

hyposecretion of the thyroid gland during childhood.............hyposecretion of thyroid secretion during adulthood ...................hyposecretion of thyroid hormones most frequently due to................usually associated with a...............hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood............hyposecretion of growth hormone during childhood............hypersecretion of GH during adulthood.................

adenohypophysis

other name for anterior pituitary gland

neurohypophysis

posterior lobe of the pituitary gland mostly nerve tissue (ADH) vassopressant or antididuritic, oxytocin

ADH antidiuretc hormone

also called vassopressant, ADH is produced by one of the specialized cells in thr hypothalamus and stored in theposterior as needed. The hormone prevents wide swings in water balance helping to avoid dehydration or water overload, hold in fluid, in the fluid are electrolytes

diabetes insipidis

not involving the pancreas but the posterior pituitary

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