pituitary gland, hypophysis
secretes hormones that govern hormonal secretions of the other endocrine glands, controlled by the hypothalamus the master gland
secretes corticosteroids: sex hormones mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoiods, outer region
epinephrine (adrenaline) noreephinephrine (noradrenaline) Fight or flight response, sympathetic nervous system (inner region)
to excrete (-crine) internally or within ? denotes a ductless gland that furnishes an internal secretion
to secrete outwardly ............. denotes a gland that secretes outwardly through excretory ducts
4 glands superior pair & inferior pair, that produce PTH parathyroid hormone , calcium and phosphate levels
PTH (parathyroid hormone
helps maintain homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by stimulating the bones intestines and kidneys
regulatiion of the electrolyte (mineral salts) concentration in extracellular fluid
mainly cortisol help promote normal metabolism.resistance to stress and counterinflammaatory response
produced by the alpha cells stimulates liver ti break down glycogen and amino acids into glucose increases glucose levels
glucagon and insulin
............and .....................work together to maintain a relatively stable blood glucose concentration
estrogen and progesterone adrenal glands,play an important role in preparing the uterus for implantation of fertilized egg. and maintaining pregnancy
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 1
occurs mostly in children and adolescents and may be associates with a genetic predisposition. destruction of beta cells of the islets of Langerhans with complete insulin deficiency in the body
non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitis
later in life risk factors family history and obesity insulin produced but body insensitive to insulin
anterior pituitary gland
glandular:helps body resist stress (ACTH), regulates function of reproductive organs (FSH), (LH), stimulates growth of bones and muscles, stimulates normal development of and secretion of thyroid
what is the main function of the thyroid gland
regulate metabolism, produces T3 and T4 and calcitonin
Chronic metabolic disease of middle-ged and older persons. It is characterized by enlatged features particularly of the face hands and extremities. Over production of the growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
An abnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of the body from hypersecretion of the pituitary gland GH. as a baby
disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by beta cells inpancreas or defects of insulin receptors in cells.
abnormal presence of glucose in the urine resulting from the ingestion of large amounts of carbohydrates or from kidney disease such as nephrosis or from a metabolic disease such as diabetes mellitius.
hyperthyroidism also called toxic goiter characterized by goiter and exophthalmos and may be due to autoimmune reaction to yhyroid tissue.
the abnormal accumulation of ketones in the body as a result of excessive breakdown of fats caused by a deficiency or inadequate intake of carbohydrates. Fatty acids are metabolized instead and the end products ketones begin to accumulate.
the most severe form of hypothyroidism , swelling of hands, face, feet and preorbital around the eyes. (not pituitary) in adults associated with hypothyroidism
electrolytes measurement of
measurement of the level of ions: sodium, potassium, CO2 and chloride in the blood
drugs used to treat inflammatory illnesses including arthritis, asthma, and dermatitis. Also used as replacement hormones for adrenal insufficiency (Addison Disease)
cretinism, myxedema, Graves Disease, goiter, pituitary, giantisim, pituitary dwarfism , acromegaly
hyposecretion of the thyroid gland during childhood.............hyposecretion of thyroid secretion during adulthood ...................hyposecretion of thyroid hormones most frequently due to................usually associated with a...............hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood............hyposecretion of growth hormone during childhood............hypersecretion of GH during adulthood.................
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland mostly nerve tissue (ADH) vassopressant or antididuritic, oxytocin
ADH antidiuretc hormone
also called vassopressant, ADH is produced by one of the specialized cells in thr hypothalamus and stored in theposterior as needed. The hormone prevents wide swings in water balance helping to avoid dehydration or water overload, hold in fluid, in the fluid are electrolytes