Chapter 2 Solids,Liquids & Gases Test Study Guide

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Solid

A state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume

Crystalline solids

a solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern-melts at a specific temp

Amorphous solid

A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern--does not melt at a distinct temp.

Amorphous solid examples

rubber, plastic, glass,butter

Crystalline solids examples

salt,sugar,snow,quartz

Liquid

a state of matter in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume

Fluid

a substance that flows

Surface tension

the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together

Viscosity

a liquid's resistance to flow

Gas

a state matter that does not have a definite shape or volume

Melting

The change in state from a solid to a liquid

Melting point

The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid; the same as the freezing point, or temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid-- water melts at 0ºc

Freezing

the change of state from a liquid to a solid

Vaporization

The change of state from a liquid to a gas

Evaporation

the process that occurs when vaporization takes place only on the surface of a liquid

Boiling

The process that occurs when vaporization takes place inside a liquid as well as on the surface

Boiling point

The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas; the same as the condensation point, or temperature at which a gas changes to a liquid

Condensation

The change of state from a gas to a liquid(opposite of vaporization)

Sublimation

The change in state from a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state

Pressure

the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface

Boyle's Law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture

Rule of Boyle's Law

when volume +, pressure -
when volume -,pressure +

Charle's Law

a principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure

Rule of Charle's Law

When temp + , vol. +
When temp - , vol -

Graph

a diagram that shows how two variables are related

Origin

point (0,0) on a graph

Directly Proportional

a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0)

Vary Inversely

a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph forms a curve that slopes downward

The greater the speed of the particles in a container, the ___________ the preasure

Greater

The state of matter that changes in volume most easily

Gas

Boyle's Law on a Graph

Vary Inversely(curved)
ManipulatedVariable(x)--Volume(mL,L,cm3..)
Responding Variable(y)--Pressure(kPa)
Temp is kept constant

Charle's Law on a Graph

Directly Proportional(straight)
Manipulated Variable(x)--Temp(K)
Responding Variable(y)--Volume(mL,L,cm3....)
Pressure is kept constant

Curved Graph

Vary Inversely

Straight Graph

Directly Proportional

Pressure Formula

P=F/A

Melting Point Particles

particles of the solid are moving or vibration so fast that they break free from their fixed position

Freezing Point Particles

particles of the liquid are moving so slow that they begin to start to form regular patterns

Boiling Point Particles

vaporized water molecules form bubbles bellow the surface and then start to rise to the surface

Condensation Particles

when particles in a gas lose enough thermal NRG to form a liquid

Sublimation Particles

particles of a solid dont pass through the liquid state as they form the gas

Variables That Gases Are Related/Measured are...

Volume,Pressure,Temp.

Why do tires explode

the temp + there fore the pressure +

How does a Hot Air Balloon Descend/Rise

When the air cools the air becomes more dense. to rise the air is heated and air becomes less dense.

Particles of a solid

fixed,closely packed arrangement of the particles

Particles of a Liquid

are free to move

Particles of a Gas

spread apart filling the space available--in a constant motion

Freezing point

the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid-- water freezes at 0ºc

Thermal energy

The total energy of all of the particles in an object

As particles move faster the

thermal NRG rises

Volume

The amount of space that matter occupies

Temperature

a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object

Low viscosity

Low resistance to flow

Examples of Low viscosity

water,oil,milk,juice

High viscosity

high resistance to flow

Examples of High viscosity

honey, syrup, glue,molasses

Concentration

the number of particles in a given unit of vol

Why does air leak out of a basketball even though its a small hole

higher pressure in the ball results in gas particles hitting the inter surface more often so particles inside reach the hole more often exasape therefore the pressure inside the ball drops until = to the outside pressure

Examples of sublimation

dry ice,solid air freshener

Solid to liquid to gas

gaining thermal NRG each time
(slow,faster,fastest particle speed)

Solid to gas and liquid to gas

thermal NRG gained

Gas to liquid and liquid to solid

thermal NRG lost

Party balloon in a high temp the volume __________

increases

A balloon will _____ if left out in the hot air after being filled all the way

pop,explode

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