AP Human Geography Unit 2 Vocabulary

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activity space

the space within which daily activity occurs

agricultural or (neolithic) revolution

A change in the way people provided sustenance for themselves to domestication of plants and animals, the "directing of evolution." Began around 10000 BCE.

AIDS

a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles

arable land

land that can be used to grow crops

arithmetic growth

a pattern of growth that increases at a constant amount per unit time

arithmetic population or (crude) density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit.

awareness space

knowledge of opportunity locations beyond normal activity space

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

chain migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

circulation

the spread or transmission of something (as news or money) to a wider group or area

critical distance

the distance beyond which cost, effort, and/or means play a determining role in the willingness of the people to travel

crude birth rate

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

crude death rate

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

demographic momentum

this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.

demographic transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

demography

the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

density

the amount per unit size

dislocation

the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue

distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

dot maps

Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.

doubling rate

numbers that it takes a population to double in size

emigration

migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)

endemic

native to or confined to a certain region

epidemiologic transition (mortality revolution)

distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition

ethnicity

an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties

exponential growth

growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

female infanticide

the intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females

forced migration

Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.

geometric rate

Population increases exponentially

gravity model

A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.

immigration

migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

industrial revolution

the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation

infant mortality rate

the death rate during the first year of life

in-migration

movement into another region or community

internal migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

inter-regional migration

Permanent movement from on region of a country to another.

intervening obstacles

Any forces or factors that may limit human migration

intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

intra-regional migration

Migration that occurs within a one region.

life expectancy

an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities

linear growth

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

Malthus, Thomas

Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.

migration

the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

migration selectivity

Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate.

natural increase

Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate

neo-Malthusians

a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth

net migration rate

difference between immigrants and emmigrants per 1,000 people

one child policy

Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside.

out-migration

when people leave an area looking for jobs

overpopulation

too much population

pandemic

an epidemic that is geographically widespread

physiological population density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land

population concentrations

Places where the most people are usually found.

population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

population geography

A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.

population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

pull factor

factor such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country

push factor

factor, such as unemployment or the lack of freedom of speech, that makes people want to leave their country and move to another one

race

people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock

Ravenstein, Ernst

a German-English geographer cartographer and promoter of physical exercise. As a geographer he was less of a traveller than a researcher; his studies led mainly in the direction of cartography and the history of geography.

refugees

People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.

restrictive population policies

government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase

space-time prism

The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.

spatial interaction

the movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space

stationary population level

the level at which a national population ceases to grow

step migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

total fertility rate

The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life

voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

zero population growth

when the birth rate equals the death rate

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