BIOL 210 Ch. 13 Learnsmart and quiz

73 terms by mandercruso

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infectious dose

the minimum amount of microbes in the inoculating dose

sequelae

diseases that cause long-term or permanent damage leave

biological vectors

animals that participate in the life cycles of pathogens and transmit pathogens from host to host are

infection

occurs when pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues

microbial antagonism

the effect of "good" microbes against invading microbes is called

kinases

dissolve fibrin clots

endotoxin

is indicative of gram negative organisms

symptom

the subjective evidence of disease as sensed by the patient is termed

escherichia

is not a resident biota of the skin

lipopolysaccharide

is an endotoxin

decrease

leukopenia is the __ in the level of WBCs in a patient

cilia

not a method of adhesion

opportunistic pathogens

cause disease in a compromised individual

the patient's own normal biota

endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are

period of invasion

the stage of an infectious disease when specific signs and symptoms are seen and the pathogen is at peak activity

proteins

exotoxins are

phagocytosis

once a microbe has entered a host, what process performed by certain WBCs will attempt to destroy the microbes?

streptococcus, haemophilus, bacteroides, lactobacillus

resident biota of the GI tract include

vector

an animal, such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a

streptococcus

which genus is the most common resident biota of the mouth

source

the intermediary object or individual from which the infectious agent is actually acquired is termed the

reservoir

the primary, natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called the

inflammation

local edema, swollen lymph nodes, fever, soreness, and abscesses are indications of

sign

the objective, measurable evidence or disease by an observer is termed a

endotoxin

a bacterial toxin that is not ordinarily released but instead is an integral part of gram-negative cell walls

leukocytosis

is an increase in the number of circulating WBCs

leukopenia

is a decrease in the number of circulating WBCs

supports

the human body usually __ resident biota in tissue with contact to the outside and body fluids in exposed body cavities

bacteremia

the presence of viable, but not necessarily multiplying, bacteria in circulating blood

latency

a state of inactive infection

noncommunicable

a __ disease is an infectious disease that does not arise from host to host transmission

immunocompromised; sterile

normal biota can cause infection and disease when the person is __ and when the normal biota is introduced to a previously __ site.

etiologic

the agent that causes an infection and disease is most commonly referred to as the __ agent

focal

a __ infection occurs when an infectious agent breaks loose from a localized infection and is carried by the circulation to another tissue

convalescent period

the time period where a patient is recovering from an infection

vehicle

the general term for an inanimate material (solid object, liquid, or air) that serves as a transmission agent for pathogens

vector

a live animal that transmits an infectious agent

exotoxin

a toxin, usually protein, that is secreted an acts upon a specific cellular target

fomite

any inanimate objet that can serve as a vehicle for the spread of disease when contacted by an infected individual

find evidence, isolate, inoculate, reisolate

koch's postulates in order

ingested

the GI tract is the portal of entry for pathogens contained in __ substances

edema

the accumulation of excess fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities

symptom

any subjective evidence of disease that is sensed by the patient

necrosis

defined as the death and disintegration of cells and tissues

inflammation

the natural, nonspecific response to tissue injury or infection to protect the host from further damage

primary

the first infection that predisposes the patient to further infection is called the __ infection

direct

if an agent is transferred from an infected person to another person without an intermediate object, substance, or space, it is said to be __ transmission

fimbriae

short appendage on some pathogenic bacteria that provides adhesion to host cells

asymptomatic

__ carrier is a person with an inapparent infection who shows no symptoms of being infected yet is able to pass the disease agent on to others

pathogenicity

a broad concept that describes an organism's ability to cause disease

respiratory

the largest number of pathogens enter the body thru the __ tract

chronic

an individual who shelters an infectious agent long after recovery is called a __ carrier

nosocomial

an infection that develops while being treated at a hospital or medical facility

universal precautions

the CDC Guidelines for handling of patients and body substances are referred to as the

viremia

the presence of viruses in the stream

intact skin

is not a common site of entry thru the skin

phagocytes

WBCs capable of engulfing other cells and particles

mortality

the number of persons who have died as the result of a particular cause is referred to as the __ rate

acute

__ disease is characterized by rapid onset and short duration

period of invasion

the time period during a clinical infection when the infectious agent multiplies at high levels and obvious signs and symptoms are present

infectious

the pathologic state involving the disruption and destruction of tissues by microbes

exogenous

an infectious agent that originates from outside the body is called

virulence factor

any characteristic or structure of a pathogen that allows it to establish itself in a host or cause damage to the host

disease

__ can be characterized as any deviation from the healthy state

portal of exit

the route thru which a pathogen departs from the host organism

zoonosis

an infection indigenous to animals but naturally transmissible to humans

resident

long term microbial inhabitants of the skin and exposed mucosa, that generally do not cause disease in the host are called __ biota

septicemia

a systemic infection associated with microorganisms multiplying in circulating blood

infectious dose

the minimum number of a microbe that must enter the body in order to cause infection

sneezing and coughing

respiratory pathogens can exit the body most effectively by

exotoxins

have effects on specific cell types

endotoxins

have systemic effects such as fever, inflammation, diarrhea, and shock

pandemic

the spread of an epidemic across continents

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