Given frequency → Find wavelength
Given wavelength → Find frequency
Speed of light=(frequency)(wavelength)
c = 3.00x10⁸m/s
or c =3.00 x 10 ¹⁷ nm/s
Given energy → Find frequency
Given frequency → Find energy
Energy = (Plank's Constant)(frequency)
h = Plank's Constant = 6.63x10⁻³⁴ Js
When an electron goes from n = x to n = y?
E = -2.179x10⁻¹⁸J([1/f²]-[1/i²])
nf=final energy level (what it returns to)
ni=initial energy level (excited state)
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
You can't know the actual location of the electron; just the probability of where it'll be.
Three rules of quantum mechanical model.
1) Aufbau Principle; electron go into the lowest energy level possible
2) Pauli Exclusion Principle: Each orbital can hold max of 2 electrons each.
3) Hund's Rule: When e- are entering the same subshell, you fill each orbital with ONE electron first before going back and adding the second one. (Single placement before double.)
Types of waves: Shortest to longest wavelengths.
(shortest) Cosmic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, ultra-violet, visible, infrared, microwaves, radar, radio waves. (longest)
Colors of light: Longest to shortest wavelengths.
Increases ↑ and →.
Alkali Metals (Low Ionization NRG; easy to get rid of electrons because they want to LOSE them to become n.g.'s)→ Nobel Gases (High Ionization NRG; want to KEEP electrons to become n.g.'s)
Increases ↑ and →.
As you go →, the want to KEEP electrons gets bigger, so they suck in more; the smaller the atom, the stronger the pull.
Principle - "n"
Azimuthal - "l"
Magnetic - "ml"
Spin - "ms"
n = energy level. Can be # 1 - 7 ( coefficient in "shorthand")
2p³ is going to be n=2 because it's 2p.
l = subshell. 0 = s orbital, 1 = p orbital, 2 = d orbital, 3 = f orbital
2p³ is going to be a 1 because it's P.
ml = ⁻l to ⁺l. You have to count out where the last electron placed is going to be. Let's say it's 3p⁶ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ <- That last one is going to be ml = 1.
ms = Depends on ↑ or ↓. ↓ is going to be ⁻1/2. ↑ is going to be ⁺1/2.