gen psych ch. 8,9, and 10

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Memory

the persistence of learning over time

The process of encoding refers to

getting informatino into the memory

the process of getting information out of memory is called..

retrieval

automatic processing and effortful processing are two types of..

Encoding

The conscious repetition of information to maintain it in memory is called..

Rehearsal

Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to..

Encoding

The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as..

The serial position effect

Semantic encoding refers to the processing of..

Meanings

Chunking refers to the..

organization of information into meaningful units

Echoic memory refers to a momentary sensory memory of

auditory stimuli

Refers to a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

Echoic Memory

"Magical number 7, plus or minus two" is..

short term memory

Long-term potentiation is..

a neural basis for learning and memory

Memory of facts is to_____ as memory of skills is to _______

Explicit Memory, Implicit memory

Retrieval cues

Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past

Mood-congruent memory

refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of retrieval

Some information in our fleeting sensory memory is encoded into..

Short term memory

Not remembering what a meaning of a term is, but where it appeared in a textbook

Automatic Processing

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called..

Iconic Memory

A _______ memory would be typically stored in ________Memory

Flashbulb, Long-term

Cerebellum is to ____ memory as hippocampus is to ____ memory

Implicit, Explicit

When troy is in a bad mood he interprets his parents comments as criticisms, when he is in a good mood, he interprets the same types of parent comments as helpful suggestions. this has to do with a problem with...

Encoding

Not being able to remember a friends name would be a failure in..

Retrieval

What refers to the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information?

Proactive Interference

What is the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information?

Retroactive Interference

Research on memory construction indicates that.

False memories often feel as real as true memories

What is used when forming many associations between new course material and what you already know as an effective way to build a network?

Retrieval Cues

Cognitive psychology

the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning

Category Hierarchies

Dividing broad concepts into increasingly smaller and detailed subgroupings

The use of Heuristics rather than algorithms is ..

Most likely to save time in arriving at solutions to problems

Confirmation Bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

Funtional Fixedness

The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses

Belief Perserverance

tendency to maintain belief after contradictory evidence (replay) Ex. Witness your boyfriend cheating on you but still believe he will be faithful

Semantics

refers to the rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences

Syntax

Combining words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules

Telegraphic Speech is

is most closely associated with two-word stage of language development

Who emphasized the importance of reinforcement in language?

B.F. Skinner

Noam Chomsky

an inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules

Who suggested that diverse human languages share a univeral grammer?

Chomsky

Aphasia

impaired use of language

Australian dolphins learned to use marine sponges to catch fish examplifies..

Transmit Cultural Innovations

Algorithm

Methodical step-by-step procedure to solving problems

Whorfs linguistic determinism

Bilingual people experience a different sense of self

Factor analysis

a statistical procedure that can be used to identify clusters of closely related test items

Divergent Thinking

Generating multiple possible answers to a problem

Sternberg's concept of practical intelligence. (EX)

Shelly, a newpaper reporter who has established a large network of information sources

Researchers indentified many different chromosomal regions important to intelligence...

Polygenetic

Flynn effect

due in part to increasingly improved childhood health and nutrition

Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the

Extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity

Spearman

most enthusiastic about the value of a single test score as an index of an individuals mental capacity

Intelligence tests are biased in the sense that

Test performance is influenced by cultural experiences

Psychologists would agree that intelligence is a

mental ability to learn from experience

Psychologists use_______ to assess individuals mental aptitudes

Intelligence tests

Spearman's g factor refers to a

general intelligence that underlies successful performance

Factor analysis is

a statistical procedure that indentifies clusters of closely related test items

L.L. Thurstone claimed that word fluency

Involves a different deminsion of intelligence from that of reasoning

The characteristics of savant syndrome suggests that intelligence is

a diverse set of distinct abilities

Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and _____ intelligence

Creative

Sternberg's three intelligences reveal ____ ethnic group differences in intelligence and a ____ accurate prediction of American students first year

Reduced, More

Creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

Intrisic Motivation is thought to be an important component of

Creativity

Perceptual skills that can indicate someone is happy by facial expressions is..

Emotional intelligence

The concept of emotional intelligence is most likely to be criticized by

Extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of skills

Binet an Simon designed a test

to identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes

To assess mental age Binet and Simon mesured

children's reasoning skills

a 5yr old with an intellegence test of a 4 yr old has a mental age of

4

IQ =

Mental age/Chronological age X 100

12 yr old with an intelligence response of a 9 yr old has an IQ of

75

5yr old with an IQ of 120 has a mental age of

6

Aptitude tests

test ability to learn new skills

Aptitude tests are to ____ as achievement tests are to ______

Future Performance, Current Competence

A standerdized test means that

a person's test performance can be compated to that of a pretested group

The distribution of intelligence test scores at a bell shaped curve is a

Normal Curve

About ____ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115

68

A normal curve would represent

Women in terms of there physical hieghth

Reserchers assess two scores of a single test to measure the

reliability

A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to has a high

Validity

Psychologists would calculate the relationship between intelligence test scores and grades in order to assess the

Predictive Validity

The correlation between academic success and intelligence scoers will be lowest if computed from a group of individuals with scores between

85 and 115

The high positive correlations between scores received on comparable sections of SAT and GRE provide evidence for the ______ of the test scores

reliability

Sasha is mildly mentally retarted. she will receive intelligence score between

50 and 70

The similarity of intelligence of indentical twins raised apart is

Greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together

Which provides evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by heredity?

Identical twins reared seperately are more similar in there test scores than fraternal twins reared together

The heritability of intelligence refers to

The percentage of variation in telligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors

Babies in an Iranian orphanage suffered delayed intellectual development due to

a deprived environment

Research indicates that head start programs reduce

the likelihood that participants will repeat grades or require special education

A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a __ level of ___ and a ___ level of ___

High, reliability ; Low, validity

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