Chapter 9, 10, 12 Test

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AP world history re-take study guide

Which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct continuation of the Roman Empire?

Byzantine Empire

The significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following EXCEPT

the empire's conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East.

Which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western Europe?

They produced different versions of Christianity, culturally as well as organizationally separate.

The capital of the Byzantine Empire and its commercial center was located at

Constantinople

What was the difference in the military organization of Byzantine and western Roman empires?

The Byzantine Empire recruited armies from the Middle East.

Which of the following was NOT one of Justinian's positive contributions to the Byzantine Empire?

The reconquest of Gaul

The former courtesan who was Justinian's wife and adviser was

Theodora

Which of the Following was a result of the conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Muslims?

The position of the small farmers in the empire was weakened as a result of heavy taxation, resulting in greater aristocratic estates.

Which of the following conclusions that might be drawn about the Byzantine Empire as the result of its conflicts with its neighbors is most true?

Despite all of its wars with its neighbors demonstrate that the empire had real core strength.

In which of the following ways were the Byzantine bureaucracy and the Chinese bureaucracy similar?

Both bureaucracies were open to talented commoners, not just aristocrats.

Which of the following statements concerning urbanization within the Byzantine Empire is most correct?

Constantinople controlled the economy and grew to enormous size, but other cities were relatively small.

What were the primary exports of the Byzantine Empire?

Luxury products, such as silk, cloth and carpets

The name normally given to the form of Christianity that emerged in the Byzantine Empire was

Orthodox Christianity.

The religious controversy over the use of religious images in the worship that broke out in the 8th century was called

the Iconoclastic controversy.

Which of the following issues was a cause for the split between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches after 1054?

the Roman Catholic practice of requiring celibacy for its priests

What two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for Slavic language

Cyril & Methodius

Which of the following practices was NOT adopted as a feature of the Russian Orthodox church?

Clerical celibacy

Why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism?

He believed that the Roman catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of church by state.

Which of the following statements concerning the Tatar invasions of Russia is most accurate?

Tatar supervision did not destroy Russian aristocracy.

Which of the following statements concerning the impact of the Christianity on polytheistic religions in the western Europe is most accurate?

The process of conversions produced a religious blend in which beliefs in the magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity.

Which of the following statements concerning the intellectual activity of the the medieval West prior to the 8th century is most accurate?

With the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts.

the system that described the economic and political relations between the landlords and their peasant labors was called

manorialism.

Which of the following statements concerning the three-field rotation system is most accurate?

Introduced in the 8th century, the three-field rotation added acres to the production by leaving only a third of the land un-planted.

What Frankish king was responsible for the conversions of his people to the Christianity in order to gain a vague domination over the Franks?

Clovis

Benedict of Nursia was responsible for what accomplishments in the 6th century?

The creation of a set of rules for monasteries

Which of the following statements concerning the Holy Roman Emperors after the 10th century is most accurate?

Discarding much of the former Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman emperors reestablished a centralized government in northern Italy.

Which of the following was NOT a positive development that introduced new sources of strength by the 9th and 10th centuries to western Europe?

Greater regional political stability

Relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for the military service and loyalty were called

feudalism.

Which of the following statements about feudalism is most accurate?

Although it inhabited the development of a strong central states, some kings were able to use feudalism to build their own power.

Which of the following areas was NOT one of the regions into which expansion from western Europe took place?

Northern Africa

Which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the Crusades?

The Crusades demonstrated a new western superiority in the wider world.

The reforming monastic orders founded in Assisi in the 13th century were created by

St. Francis and St. Clare.

Pope Gregory VII decreed the practice of investiture invalid. What was investiture?

the practice of the state appointment of bishops

In what way was the educational system of the medieval West different from that of China?

the universities were not tied into a single bureaucratic system.

the leading figure in the synthesis of the classical rational philosophy with Christian theology was a teacher at the University of Paris in the 13th century,

Thomas Aquinas.

All of the following were functions of the merchant and artisan guilds EXCEPT

ensuring a free-market economy.

Which of the following was a result of the Hundred Years War during the 14th and 15th centuries?

Kings reduced their reliance on feudal forces in favor of paid armies

Which of the following statements concerning the medieval economy is most true?

Medieval economics was a combination of capitalistic and feudal practices.

What is the capital of the southere Song Dynasty

Hangzhou

Which of the following statements concerning urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era is most accurate?

Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities.

What made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?

The rebuilding of the imperial bureaucracy using Confucian ideology

Unlike his father, the second Sui emperor favored

the Confucian scholar-gentry class

What led to the downfall of the Sui Dynasty?

unsuccessful military campaigns...
or... widespread Buddhist rebellion

What was the attitude of the Tang emperors toward the Confucian scholar-gentry?

The Tang supported the rebirth of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.

Which of the following descriptions of Pure Land Buddhism is NOT accurate?

It appealed to upper class Chinese.

What Tang ruler actually attempted to have Buddhism recognized as state religion?

Empress Wu

What proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty?

The Confucians' successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat.

What was the result of the imperial attempt by the Tang to suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire?

Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence of the early Tang years.

What was the impact on Confucianism of the Tang repression of the Buddhists?

Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the 20th century.

Which of the following was NOT a problem during the last years of the Tang dynasty?

A Buddhist rebellion in southern China

How did the Song empire compare to the Tang?

The Song empire was smaller in territorial extent than the Tang empire.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the position of the scholar-gentry under the Song dynasty?

the domination if the scholar-gentry over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully secured in the Song era.

What caused the flight of the Song dynasty from its capital in northern China?

The invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Qin kingdom.

Why was the construction of the Grand Canal necessary?

The Yangtze River valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era.

Which of the following was NOT an economic development during the period of commercial expansion during the Tang and Song dynasties?

Military domination of the seas.

Which of the following was NOT a result of the agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors?

The scholar-gentry were removed as landlords.

What was primary difference between marriages, families, and households of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song China?

Extended family households were more common in upper-class households than in lower-class ones.

In what way did foot-binding serve to diminish the independence of Chinese women by the end of the Song era?

Foot-binding sufficiently crippled women to effectively confine their mobility to their household.

During the Song dynasty the interest of Confucian intellectuals in nature was most apparent in the production of

landscape paintings

What group was responsible for the fall of the southern Song dynasty in 1279?

Mongols

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