4 (biology) ch.21&22

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chitin

Complex carbohydrate that is main component of fungi cell walls.

Fungi

eukaryotic heterotrphs that have cell walls

hyphae

tiny filament that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold

bodies of multicellular fungi

are composed of many hyphae tangled together into thick mass called mycelium

mycelium

suited to absorb food because it permits a large surface area

Most Fungi

reproduce asexually and sexually

sporangia

Spore producing structure

sporangiophores

Specialized hyphae that look like upright stalks

zygomycetes

life cycles that include zygospore

zygospore

resting spore that contains zygotes formed during the sexual phase of the mold's life cycle

rhizopus stolonifer

familiar zygomycete

rhizoids

root like hypae that penetrates the bread's surface

stolons

Stemlike hyphae that runs along the surface of the food source

gametangia

Gamete producing structure in fungi

phylum ascomycota

named for the ascus reproductive structure that contains spores

conidia

asexual spores produced at tips of hyphae

ascus

forms within the fruiting body and 2 nuclei of different mating types fuse to form a diploid zygote

ascospores

eight cells produced when meiosis is followed by a cycle of mitosis

budding

Asexual reproductive process in yeasts

saccharomyces

sugar fungi

phylum basisdiomycota

(club fungi) specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club

basidium

Spore-bearing structure in club fungi

basidiospores

Haploid spores formed in basidium

deuteromycota

an extremely varied phylum

penicillium notatum

grows on fruit, reproduces asexually, evoled from ascomycete

saprobes

Organism that obtain food from decaying organic matter, all fungi are this

pleurotus ostreatus

carnivorous fungi lives inside trees

parasitic fungi

cause serious plant and animal diesases

fungal disease in plants

wheat rust

fungal disease in human

athletes foot

candida albicans

yeast, may produce thrush

some fungi

form symbiotic relationships.

lichens

Symbiotic organism between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism

mycorrhizae

Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi.

plants are made of

eukaryoted that have cell made of cellulose. carry out photosynthesis.

sporophyte

the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations

gametophyte

the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations

plants NEED

sunlight,water, minerals, gas exchange, transport water.

first plants

evolved from an organism much like the multicellular green algae living today

plants are classified by

DNA sequences

bryophytes

nonvascular plants that absorb water through diffusion

bryophtes life cycle

depends on water, also lacks vassuclar tissuse

3 types of bryophtes

mosses, liveworts, hornworts

rhizoids

the thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients for the plant

gemmae

small multi-cellular reproductive structure of liverworts

hornworts

flattened with long horn like sporophytes

gametophyte

dominant, reconizable stage of the life cycle, carries photosynthesis, (bryophytes)

protonema

mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination

antheridia

plant structure that produces sperm

archegonia

female gametangia (pruduecs egg)

sphagnum

mosses are goup of mosses thrive on water bogs

vascular tissue

tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants

tracheids

A long, skinny type of xylem found in all vascular plants.(first vasucale plants)

xylem

Vascular subsystem that carries water upward.

phloem

the tissue that moves food/sugar

lignin

substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid

seedless vascular plants

club mosses, hprsetails, ferns

roots

Absorbs water and minerals from the ground. Anchors plant in ground.

leaves

The main photosynthetic organs of vascular plants.

veins

A vascular bundle in a leaf.

stems

Supprots leaves and connects to roots with vascular tissure

lycopodium

common club mosses

equisetum

grows a meter tall, true eaves, horsetail

rhizomes

underground stems of plant such as ferns

fronds

fern leaves

sporangia

structure, on some fungi, that produces spores

sori

clusters of reproductive cells on the underside of a frond

gymosperms

Naked seed

angiosperms

A flowering plant which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.

cones

Seed bearing structures in Gymnosperms.

flowers

Seed bearing structures in Angiosperms.

pollen grain

structure produced by male reproductive organs of a seed plant

pollination

transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant

seed

the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract

embryo

Earliest stages in the development of an organism

seed coat

the protective covering for the seed

gnetophytes

have both gymnosperm and angiosperm characteristics

cycads

evergreen palms with cones

ginkgoes

Has only survived for ornamentation, few make it in the wild, can survive with limited water and air pollution

conifers

cone-bearing plants

fruit

Ovary walls of angiosperm seeds, encases developing seeds for protection.

monocots

seed plant with 1 cotyledon

dicotos

2 seed leaves

cotyledon

a seed leaf inside a leaf

annuals

A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season.

biennails

complete life cycles in two years

perennials

live more then two years

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