Chapter 5 Unlocking Medical Terminology

73 terms by Maximum775

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Chapter 5

arthralgia

pain in a joint

ataxia

without reaction to a stimulus

atrophy

without development

bradykinesia

abnormally slow movement

dyskinesia

difficulty in movement

dystrophy

abnormal development

hypertrophy

excessive development

muscle pain

myalgia

tenodynia

tendon pain

achondroplasia

abnormally slow growth of long bones resulting in unusually short, stocky limbs

ankylosis

abnormal condition of joint stiffness

arthritis

inflammation and degeneration of a joint

arthrochondritis

inflammation of cartilages within joints

bunion

abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

bursolith

a calcium deposit within a bursa

carpal tunnel syndrome

repetitive stress injury to wrist

carpoptosis

drooping of the wrist

chondromalacia

deterioration or softening of cartilage

cramps

prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions

cranioschisis

a congenital fissure of the skull

diskitis

inflammation of an intervertebral disk

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

a congenital condition resulting in progressive muscular weakness and deterioration; abbreviated DMD

epicondylitis

inflammation of the cartilages of the elbow

fracture

a break in a bone

gout

abnormal deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints causing localized pain (usually in the big toe joints)

herniated disk

a rupture of an intervertebral disk, resulting in the protrusion of tissue against spinal nerves, which generates pain

kyphosis

a deformity of the spine characterized by the presence of a hump; also called hunchback

lateral epicondylitis

inflammation of the lateral tendon of the elbow; also called tennis elbow

lordosis

a deformity of the spine characterized by an anterior curve of the lumbar area

Marfan's syndrome

inherited condition resulting in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates, forming long arms and legs

maxillitis

inflammation of the maxilla

meniscitis

inflammation of a meniscus

myasthenia gravis

weakness in the muscles

myeloma

a malignant tumor of bone marrow

myoclonus

a spasm or twitching of a muscle or muscle group

myocele

protrusion of a muscle through its fascia

myositis

inflammation of muscle tissue

osteitis

inflammation of a bone

osteitis deformans

viral infection of bone that causes deformities of the skeleton resulting from the acceleration of bone loss; also called Paget's disease

osteoarthritis

a form of arthritis characterized by an age-related deterioration of joints that is accompanied by erosion of cartilage and painful inflammation

osteocarcinoma

cancer of bone

osteochondritis

inflammation of bone and associated cartilage

osteofibroma

a benign tumor of bone, in which the tumor contains fibrous connective tissue that surrounds bone

osteogenesis imperfecta

an inherited condition resulting in impaired growth and fragile bones, leading to progressive skeletal deformation and frequent fractures

osteomalacia

a gradual and painful softening of bones

osteomyelitis

a painful bone infection caused by bacteria characterized by inflammation of a red bone marrow

osteonecrosis

death of bone tissue

osteopetrosis

excessive formation of dense bone, which crowds out marrow cavities and leads to cutting off blood supply to bones; also known as marble bone

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bone density

osteosarcoma

cancer of bone

Paget's disease

viral infection of bone that deforms the skeleton due to the acceleration of bone loss

paraplegia

paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

polymyositis

inflammation of many muscles simultaneously

quadroplegia

paralysis of all four appendages

rheumatoid arthritis

a form of arthritis characterized by progressive, gradual joint deterioration that is caused by an autoimmune response; abbreviated RA

scoliosis

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

spinal cord injury

trauma to the spinal cord often resulting in paralysis; often abbreviated SCI

spondylarthritis

inflammation of the intervertebral joints

sprain

an injury resulting from stretching a ligament beyond its normal range, tearing its collagen fibers

strain

an injury resulting from stretching a muscle beyond its normal range, tearing muscle tissue

synoviosarcoma

cancer of a synovial membrane in a joint

tendonitis

inflammation of a tendon, such as rotator cuff tendonitis

tenosynovitis

inflammation of a tendon and the synovial membrane that surrounds it

Colles

a break in the distal part of the radius

comminuted

a break resulting in fragmentation of the bone

compression

a crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall

displaced

a break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces

epiphyseal

a break at the locations of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone

greenstick

a slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an x-ray

nondisplaced

a break in which the broken bones retain their alignment

Pott's

a break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg

spiral

a spiral-shaped break often caused by twisting stresses along a long bone

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