Catherine was trying to induce Joseph II to help in her plans for Turkey - Greek Project and so took him on tour of newly won Black Sea provinces. One of her aides, Potemkin, constructed facades to villages and had "happy" peasants line the route to give illusion of prosperity - in reality just bogus. Joseph wanted Silesia but Catherine induced him to join in war of conquest of Turkey. Interrupted by French Rev. She then hoped to get Austria and Prussia busy with Fr. Rev. so she could have a free hand with Turkey.
Term sometimes used for period 1760 to 1848 since countries on both sides of the Atlantic were affected. More commonly known as Democratic Revolution.
Period from 1760-1848 given this title since in all the diversity of these upheavals, from the American Revolution to those of 1848, certain principles of the modern democratic society were in one way or another affirmed. In this view the particular revolutions, attempted revolutions, or basic reform movements are seen as aspects of one great revolutionary wave by which virtually the whole area of Western civilizaiton was transformed. CONTRARY ARGUMENT - that each country is unique and presents a special case - TRUE but much in common and therefore can say this was a Revolutionary Age. ALSO MUST NOTE THE WAYS IN WHICH NOT DEMOCRATIC - 1) Not demanding universal suffrage 2)Not aiming at welfare state 3) Not especially aimed against monarchy.
Revolutionary movement demanded "liberty and equality" - wanted declarations of rights and Constitution, sovereignty of people, national citizenship, people to be classless - IN SHORT, EVERYTHING ASSOCIATED WITH ABSOLUTISM, FEUDALISM OR INHERITED RIGHT(EXCEPT PROPERTY) WAS REJECTED. (NOTE: DEMO REV WAS A MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENT).
Young G III who came to throne in 1760 felt himself to be a "patriot king" whereas GI and GII still saw themselves as Germans and were seen by many English as such. It caused him to want to heighten his influence and to overcome the factionalism of parties. But would have to work through Parliament and descend into the political arena and buy up votes in Commons etc. In effect he created King's Friends.
A new faction - powerful during the ministry of Lord North from 1770-1782. All were factions of Whigs.
Practically defunct during reign of GIII - Britain did not have a two party system and term Tory, as it came to be used by American Revolutionaries, was little more than a term of abuse.
Even though Parliament supreme and const. questions been settled, there were
numerous undercurrents of discontent. Dissenters, or Protestants not accepting the Church of England, had enjoyed religious toleration since 1689 but continued (until 1828) to struggle under various forms of political exclusion. Overlapped with two other groups - parliamentary reformers and Commonwealthmen.
Increasingly eccentric and largely ignored - looked back to the Puritan Revolution and the republican era of Oliver Cromwell. Kept alive memories of the Levellers and ideals of equality, mixed with a pseudo history of a simple Anglo Saxon England that had been crushed by the despotism of the Norman Conquest. Less influence in England than in American colonies and especially in New England which had originated in close connection with the Puritan Revolution.
First agitation of reform movt. in England before the Am. Rev. was centered about JW. Had attacked the policies of GIII but been vindicated when the courts pronouned the arrest of his publisher illegal. Been expelled by H of C dominated by "king's friends". Became hero and 3 times reelected to the House - which refused to seat him. Followers, in 1769, founded the Supporters of the Bill of Rights - dedicated to parliamentary reform. Case raised question of whether the H of C should be dependent on the electorate AND propriety of mass agitation "out of doors" on political questions. Debates in parliament reported in press. Wilkes introduced first of many reform bills in 1776.
Major John Cartwright
"FATHER OF REFORM" - began series of pamphlets on the subject of reform at time of John Wilkes. Lived to be 84 but not long enough to see first Reform Bill of 1832 passed. Dissenting intellectuals such as Richard Price and Joseph Priestly joined the movement. Price, founder of actuarial statistics, announced in 1776 that only 5,723 persons chose half the membership of the H of C. Many London Merchants supported reform.
Whig leader who was opposed to many of the reforms being touted. Was founder of philosophical conservatism, yet in his own way a reformer. He was more concerned that the H of C should be independent and responsible than that is should be mathematically representative. Thought that the landowning interest should govern. Pleaded for a strong sense of party in opposition to royal encroachments. Argued that members of Parliament should follow their own best judgment of the country's interests, bound neither by the king nor by their own constituents.
EDMUND BURKE objected to these vigorously. These were jobholders dependent on their ministerial patrons. He also objected to the use made for political purposes of an array of pensions, sinecures, honorific appointments, and ornamental offices, ranks and titles. In his ECONOMICAL REFORM OF 1782 BURKE GOT MANY OF THESE CORRUPTIONS ABOLISHED.
Act of Union of 1801
Created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which lasted until 1922. United Cath and Presb Irish uprising against Brit while busy with French in war - 1798. Brit had suppressed rebellion and then turned to centralizing. Ended separate kingdom of Ireland and Irish parliament. Irish to be represented in Westminster. These provisions incorporated in Act of Union.
India Acts of 1773 and 1784
East India Co. rife with corruption -> need to control British subjects in India. 1773 Lord North's ministry passed a REGULATING ACT to control Brits, not Indians. Company still had its trading activities but its political activities were put under parliamentary supervision. All Brit establishments under a single governor general, set up new supreme court at Calcutta and required co. to submit its correspondence on political matters for review by the ministers of His Majesty's Govt. First Brit Governor was WARREN HASTINGS. Was so high handed with some of Indian princes - made many enemies with Brits in Bengal that was impeached. Long trial in House of Lords. Acquitted. After Clive he was the main author of British supremacy in India. 1784 SECOND ACT - CREATED INDIA OFFICE in the British ministry at home. Governor general henceforth ruled the growing British sphere in India almost as an absolute monarch BUT ONLY AS THE AGENT OF THE MINISTRY AND PARLIAMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN.