Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
The beliefs in Christ's return to set up his godly kingdom for 1000 years.
Religious belief that says God created the world and lets it run itself by natural law
Ralph Waldo Emerson
His essays urged Americans not to imitate Europe, but create a new American Literature. His works urged self-reliance, independence, and spirituality.
Henry D. Thoreau
Wrote an essay Walden) on the duty of civil disobedience and refused to pay taxes to protest against the Mexican war.
Charles Grandison Finney
Lawyer turned evangelist who led the "Burned Over" revivals in NY. Emphasized dramatic preaching, prayer meetings in homes and attainment of "perfection".
Founded the Mormon religion after reporting that he was visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840; the plates, when deciphered, brought about the Book of Mormon; he ran into opposition from Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri when he attempted to spread the Mormon beliefs, but was killed by non believer. Smith establishment of the Mormon faith started a movement within America of values including no drinking, gambling, and an unorthodox view of marriage.+
Founded by Joseph Smith, who claimed he was visited by God, and in 1830 he published a document called The Book of Mormon. He said it was a translation of a set of gold tablets he had found in the hills of New York, revealed to him by an angel of God.
MA leader in building schools for all citizens. Argued that teaching all citizens, especially children, would instill republican ideas and downplay issues of class.
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language (American Dictionary).
A series of elementary textbooks embedded with the virtues of hard work, punctuality, and sobriety.
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Organizations that conducted discussions and established libraries and public schools.
Dedicated to improving conditions for the mentally ill. Led movement to build new mental hospitals and improve existing ones.
School found by evangelists that was allowed women and blacks to attend.
American Temprance Society
A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed women's suffrage.
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Susan B. Anthony
Social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Quaker sisters from South Carolina who came north and became active in the abolitionist movement; Angelina married Theodore Weld, a leading abolitionist and Sarah wrote and lectured on a variety of reforms including women's rights and abolition.
Seneca Falls Convention,1848
First women's rights convention in American History. Issued "Declaration of Sentiments"-declared "all men and women are created equal" and listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them.
A British cotton manufacturer and utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Created New Harmony.
It was founded by John Humphrey Noyes. It was a group of religious perfectionists who lived in New York. They practiced polygamy, communal property and communal raising of children.
(Romantics) Valued nature, beauty, truth and spirituality.
American religious sect devoted to the teachings of Ann Lee Stanley, prohibited marriage and sexual relationships., A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
John J. Audubon
Naturalist who painted wild fowl in their natural habitat. Birds of America received considerable popularity.
The Hudson River School
A painting type which was a romantic, heroic, mythic style that flourished in the 19th century. It tended to paint American landscapes as beautiful and brooding. The Hudson River School depictions of the western frontier contributed to the western expansion.
American writer that wrote the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." Wrote short stories with American themes (mostly humorous or dark tales).
James Fenimore Cooper
American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans.
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature. He was an important part for the buildup of American literature.
W`as an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The "Scarlet Letter" shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
Irish Potato Famines
Americans who feared that immigrants would take jobs and impose their Roman Catholic beliefs on society.
Order of the Star Spangled Banner
Nativists rallied for political action made the order which soon developed into the formidable American or "Know Nothing" party.
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing.
Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.