every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
the study of the relative power adn limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
a complex molecle containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of sythesizing a protein
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromomes
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
...twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are gentically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
a person's characteristic environmental reactivity and intensity
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. the heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
in psychology, the biologically and socially influneced characteristics by which people define male and female
the enduring behaviors , ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
an understood rule for accepted adn excepted behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
giving priority to the goals of one's group (oftern one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes, males have on. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the sex organs in the fetus and devlopment of the male sex characteristics during puberty
a set of expectations (norms) about social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
one's sense of being male or female
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly