Respiratory System

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Chapter 23

Quiet breathing is to ________ as shallow breathing is to ________.

eupnea; costal breathing

Part A
________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.

Inspiratory reserve volume

Blockage of pulmonary blood flow by a clot or similar obstruction is

pulmonary embolism.

The portion of the nasal cavity contained within the flexible tissues of the external nose is the

vestibule

The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and
bronchioles, is called

emphysema

Tuberculosis results from an infection by the bacterium

Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. His problems result from

genetic mutation in a membrane channel and thick secretions that are difficult to transport.

The ________ is lined by stratified squamous epithelium.

oropharynx

The following is a list of some airways.

1. secondary bronchus
2. bronchioles
3. alveolar ducts
4. primary bronchus
5. respiratory bronchiole
6. alveoli
7. terminal bronchiole

The order in which air passes through is

4, 1, 2, 7, 5, 3, 6.

The conchae

create turbulence in the air to trap particulate matter in mucus.

The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles all make up the

lower respiratory tract

Sympathetic input to the smooth muscle tissue in bronchioles causes all of these except

bronchodilation

Large airborne particles are filtered by

hairs in the nasal vestibule.

The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consists of

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

Which of the following organs is not part of the lower respiratory system?

oropharynx

A mucosa consists of

an epithelium and an underlying layer of areolar tissue.

Which of these descriptions best matches the term bronchiolar smooth muscle?

contraction increases airway resistance

________ generally causes a rapid increase in the rate of mucus production in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

Exposure to debris or pathogens
Exposure to allergens
Exposure to noxious stimuli
Exposure to unpleasant stimuli

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the

upper respiratory tract

The respiratory defense system is important because it

keeps out pathogens.
helps filter the air.
helps warm the air.
keeps out debris.

________ is the most common lethal inherited disease affecting individuals of Northern European descent.

Cystic fibrosis

What is the function of the structures labeled "12"?

create narrow passages
cause air to swirl within the respiratory passageway
improve warming of incoming air
help olfaction

The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the

pharynx

The palatine tonsils lie in the walls of the

oropharynx

Components of the upper respiratory system include all of the following, except the

lips

The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the

hard palate

The laryngeal cartilage not composed of hyaline cartilage is the

epiglottis

Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because

it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air.

Which of the following is not true about the pharynx?

shared by the integumentary and respiratory systems

The openings to the nostrils are the

external nares

The nasopharynx is divided from the rest of the pharynx by the

soft palate

The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the

oropharynx

The ________ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems.

pharynx

The adult human trachea is about ________ in diameter and contains ________ tracheal cartilages.

2.5 cm; 15-20

Physical damage to the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa is likely to result in

epistaxis or nosebleeds

Which of the following is not a function of the nasal mucosa?

dehumidify the incoming air

The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because

large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing.

By moving the arytenoid cartilages, __________.

the pitch of the voice can be raised or lowered

The glottis is

the opening to the larynx

The vocal folds are located within the

larynx

Tina is singing a song. At a certain point in the song she forces a large volume of air out of the glottis and at the same time increases the tension on her vocal cords. The sound that she produces is

high pitched and loud

The elastic cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the

epiglottis

The largest cartilage of the larynx is the ________ cartilage.

thyroid

The ring-shaped cartilage just inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the ________ cartilage.

cricoid

A pair of ligaments covered by laryngeal epithelium that function in sound production are the

vocal folds

The larynx contains ________ cartilages.

three unpaired, six paired, and a total of nine

A common site to place a tracheostomy tube is through the ligament that connects the cricoid cartilage to the ________ cartilage.

thyroid

The placement of a tube directly into the trachea to bypass the larynx is termed a(n)

tracheostomy

The thyroid cartilage is attached to the cricoid cartilage by the

cricothyroid ligament.

Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces

phonation

Tension on the vocal cords is regulated by the

movement of the arytenoid cartilages and contraction of laryngeal muscles.

An acute infection of the throat that can lead to swelling and closure of the glottis and cause suffocation is known as

acute epiglottitis

Contraction of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles can

move the arytenoid cartilages, close the glottis, and stretch the vocal folds.

During swallowing, the

glottis closes and the epiglottis is depressed.
intrinsic laryngeal muscles contract.
extrinsic laryngeal muscles contract.

During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the ________ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.

right primary

Which of the following statements about the trachea is false?

is reinforced with D-shaped cartilages

The airway that connects the larynx to the bronchial tree is the

trachea

They branch from the trachea at the carina.

primary bronchi

The ________ extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra.

trachea

A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe

increased thickness of the right ventricular wall.

The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of

simple squamous epithelium.

The resulting pain and inflammation when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the opposing pleural surfaces is known as

pleurisy

Asthma is

an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways.

Secondary bronchi supply air to the

lobes of the lungs

Respiratory function deteriorates as a result of pneumonia because inflammation

causes fluids to leak into the alveoli and causes respiratory bronchioles to swell and constrict.

Damage to the type II pneumocytes of the lungs would result in

a loss of surfactant, increased surface tension in the alveoli, and increased tendency to alveolar collapse.

Which respiratory organ has a cardiac notch?

left lung

If the production of surfactant by type II alveolar cells (septal cells) is inadequate, which of these changes is expected?

All of these changes can be expected if the production of surfactant is inadequate.

The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are

alveoli

The most superior portion of the lung is termed the

apex

The interlobular septa divide the lungs into

pulmonary lobules

The right lung is to ________ as the left lung is to ________.

three lobes; two lobes

Primary bronchi are to ________ as secondary bronchi are to ________.

extrapulmonary bronchi; intrapulmonary bronchi

Which is greater?

the number of lobes in the right lung

Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of

internal respiration

The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is

internal respiration

External respiration involves the

diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood.

Boyle's Law of Gases states that

if the volume goes up, the pressure goes down.

__________ has a greater partial pressure in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli, so it diffuses into the __________.

CO2; alveoli

Which gas law explains why there is as much CO2 exchanged between the alveoli and blood as there is O2 exchanged, despite the fact that the partial pressure difference is so much smaller for CO2?

Henry's Law

How would the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 change in an exercising muscle?

The partial pressure of O2 would decrease, and the partial pressure of CO2 would increase.

Which way would O2 and CO2 diffuse during internal respiration?

O2 would diffuse into the cells, and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.

Internal and external respiration depends on several factors. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in gas exchange?

the molecular weight of the gas

Alveolar ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the alveoli.

While playing in an intramural football game, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe probably is suffering from

a pneumothorax

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,

the volume of the thorax increases.

If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's

vital capactiy

________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).

alveolar ventilation rate

The term ________ describes the result from an injury that permits air to leak into the intrapleural space.

pneumothorax

Breathing that involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements is called

hyperpnea

Boyle's law states that gas volume is

inversely proportional to pressure.

Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).

internal intercostal

Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?

minute volume

Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?

primary muscle of inspiration

Pulmonary ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the lungs

When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that

they are equal

________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle.

tidal volume

________ involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements and calls on accessory muscles to assist with inhalation, while exhalation involves contraction of the internal intercostal muscles and sometimes abdominal muscles too.

forced breathing

In quiet breathing,

inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.

The function of pulmonary ventilation is to

maintain adequate alveolar ventilation.

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?

serratus anterior
pectoralis minor
scalenes
sternocleidomastoid

The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is

torr

The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is

respiratory distress syndrome

Henry's law states that

the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately

45 mm Hg

Dalton's law states that

in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.

The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately

100 mm Hg

The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately

40 mm Hg

Decompression sickness is a painful condition that develops when a person is exposed to a sudden drop in atmospheric pressure. Bubbles of ________ gas are responsible for the problem.

nitrogen

As an astronaut is lifted into Earth's orbit, what is the first change to take place in response to the drop in cabin pressure?

decreased alveolar PO2

A pulmonary embolism can be caused by ________ becoming trapped in a pulmonary artery.

blood clots, masses of fat, and air bubbles

Which of the following is greater?

the partial pressure of oxygen in atmospheric air at sea level

Determination of blood gases includes testing an arterial sample for

PO2 .
pH.
PCO2 .

Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the

diameter of an alveolus

Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart from the systemic circulation retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs..

75%

Which statement about the chloride shift is false?

causes RBCs to swell

Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?

decreased pH

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as

bicarbonate ions

Which of the following is greatest?

the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood

The most important chemical regulator of respiration is

CO2

Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to

either increase the partial pressure of oxygen or decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide.

Carbonic anhydrase

is in RBCs.
can increase the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
is an enzyme.

Which of the following would be greater?

the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the temperature is 38 degrees centigrade (as opposed to 43)

At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.

at least 90

Which of the following would be greater?

the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6 (as opposed to 7.2)

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately

45 mm Hg

Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is

bound to hemoglobin

Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.

20

Which of the following would be greater?

hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when the BPG level is low

For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the

PCO2 should be low.

The Hering-Breuer reflex

protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation.

Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will

decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli.

The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.

inspiratory

The pneumotaxic center of the pons

modifies the rate and depth of breathing.

Pneumotaxic centers in the pons

receive input from the hypothalamus and cerebrum.
modify respiratory rate and depth.
promote passive or active exhalation.
inhibit the apneustic centers.

Prolonged inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center.

apneustic

Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to

changes in PCO2 , PO2 , and pH.

If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,

a person would stop breathing

The term hypercapnia refers to

elevated PCO2.

Damage to the phrenic nerves would

force reliance on costal breathing.

A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will

increase the rate of breathing.

The pneumotaxic center

is in the pons and inhibits the apneustic center.

Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except

the precentral motor gyrus.

The apneustic centers of the pons

inhibit the pneumotaxic and inspiratory centers.

All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the

olfactory epithelium.

Which of these changes does not occur at birth when an infant takes its first breaths?

Blood flow to the lungs decreases.

All of the following are present prior to birth, except that the

alveoli are expanded.

Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in

more intense inhalation

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