Biology 2 - The Muscular System

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skeletal muscle cytoplasm is called

sarcoplasm

fascia that covers fascicle

perimysium

thin contractile fiber is called

actin

thick contractile fiber is called

myosin

a contractile unit

sarcomere

at what age do muscles begin to weaken

30

small bundle of muscled fibers

fascicle

fascia that covers myofibrils

endomysium

fascia that covers an entire muscle

epimysium

an extension of fascia that attaches a muscle to a bone

tendon

study of muscles

myology

what % of heat is generated by muscles

85%

a muscle tumor

myoma

the ability of a muscle to return to its original shape

elasticity

a painful spasmodic contraction

cramp

the membrane of a striated muscle is called

sarcolemma

sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle

spasm

another word for an impulse

action potential

hemoglobin found only in skeletal muscle that carries oxygen and provides a dark red color

myoglobin

loss of muscle tone

hypotonia

inflammation of a tendon

tendonitits

why does skeletal muscle appear striated

because of alternating strands of actin and myosin fibers

the loss of the ability to move a muscle is called

paralysis

list several nutrients needed for muscle contraction

calcium, glucose, and oxygen

explain the all or none principle

muscles will either fully contract or not contract at all. they will never partially contract.

three components of a myogram

latent period, contraction period, relaxation period

the ability to extend without damage to the muscle

extensibility

the area where the motor neuron and the muscle meet

neuromuscular junction (NMJ)

muscle stiffness due to death and how long can it last

rigor mortis, 72 hours

generation of heat by the muscle

thermogenesis

the wasting of muscle tissue due to disuse

atrophy

the skeletal muscle fiber is composed of what 2 proteins

actin and myosin

what are the 2 regulatory proteins located on the actin filament

troponin and tropomyosin

the neurotransmitter produced and secreted at the synapse

acetylcholine (ACh)

why does cardiac muscle have a long refractory period

the heart muscle needs time to recover in order to keep a normal heart beat, while skeletal muscle are constantly in use and don't need as long to recover.

place muscle components in order from simplest to most complex

actin and myson, myofibril, fascicle, muscle

what are cross bridges and where are they found

myosin heads that interlock in order to aid in muscle contraction, found on contractile units

where is calcium stored in skeletal muscles

sarcoplasmic reticulum

straited

skeletal, cardiac

voluntary

skeletal

involuntary

cardiac, smooth

thickest at center and tapering at its ends

smooth

attached to bones

skeletal

heart

cardiac

viscera

smooth

intercalated discs

cardiac

calcium binds to troponin on the actin filament exposing bridges on myosin

step 5

muscle relaxes

step 9

Acetylcholinesterase is released in the synaptic cleft and prevents another action potential

step 3

contraction

step 6

ACh diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on motor end plate

step 2

clacium released from sarcoplasmic reticulum and floods the sarcoplasm

step 4

nerve impulse triggers release of ACh

step 1

troponin-tropomyosin complex slides back into position where binding sites are blocked

step 8

calcium ions in sarcoplasm restored to low levels by the sarcoplasmic reticulum closing

step 7

latent period

period between stimulus and initial contractions.
Ca 2+ is released from SR

contraction period

lasts from 10 to 100 milliseconds
ACh is produced

relaxation period

lasts 10 to 100 milliseconds
Ca 2+ back to SR

excitability

ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing impulses

contractility

ability to shorten and thicken

functions of muscle tissue

motion, stabilizing posture, regulating organ volume, generation of heat

anaerobic muscular activity

short periods of time, 15 seconds

aerobic muscular activity

longer periods of time, more than 30 seconds

from what do skeletal muscles develop

the mesoderm

effects of anabolic steriod use

increase muscle size, strength, and endurance
increase in breast size in men
decrease in breast size in women

what causes smooth muscles to contract

pH, alcohol, drugs, hormones, and nerve impulses

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