back view, back bone, spinal cord
(upper arm, thigh) close to the body
(calf, forearm) farthest from the body
everything below the skull
Human mouth shape
Ape mouth shape
Brain size determines what about the skull
mandible, zygomatic arch, TMJ
As animals get bigger the brain gets ______, & dentition gets ______
human & chimpanzee - different angle of jaw & size of teeth
unique trait humans have
skull _____ indicates brain function
Dental formula for Humans, Apes, and Old world monkeys
Dental formula for Old world monkeys
Dental formula for placental mammals
Frugivore teeth are...
large & wide incisors
canines have large roots
Large & flat molars and premolars
By looking at a baboons teeth you can determine...
if male or female
bone that runs around eye on prosimians
A fossil bipedal primate with both apelike and human characteristics, found in Pliocene and lower Pleistocene deposits
shoulder rotation, Brachiation (swinging action), Bipedalism
Males 50-60 lbs; Females 20 lbs
olive baboon family name
papio anubis male - male interactions are_____
papio anubis male-female interactions are _____
papio anubis female-female interactions are ______
Papio hamadryas is what kind of monkey?
papio hamadryas male-male interactions are ____
papio hamadryas male-female interactions are _____
papio hamadryas female-female interactions are _____
papio hamadryas are ______ 1 male 2-3 females
OMU (one man unit)
Jane Phillips Conroy studied what?
Babies that are a hybrid of papio anubis and hamadryas behave how?
how they look
Hylobatidae males and females are...
Reported in 1962 that chimpanzees use tools.
"Angel" of Indonesia.; orangutans
Family Hominoidea includes
Hylobatidae (lesser apes), Pongidae (great apes), & Hominidae (humans)
weight of pongo pygmaeus
males 165 lbs
pongo pygmaeus eat what?
fruit, leaves, and incects
Male and female interaction for pongo pygmaeus
polygyny (only visits females to mate)
Gorilla female-female interaction is ______
Gorillas eat ______
fissils : spikey leaves
pan troglodytes diet includes...
fruit, birds, eggs, lizards, snakes
pan troglodytes are arboreal/terrestrial
they are both
pan troglodytes are patrilineal which means...
Of, relating to, or based on relationship to the father or descent through the male line
Pan troglodytes weight?
vertebrate & invertebrate
primates, equids, & dinosaurs
Crustaceans, star fish
Fossilization is a _______ sample
fossil record is _____
The branch of paleontology that deals with the processes of fossilization.
fossils are _____
mostly _____ & _____ adults in fossil record
old and weak
rare to find fossil fully complete usually about ____%
Agents of destruction of fossils: Biological
predators and disease
Agents of destruction of fossils: Mechanical
wind, rain, currents
Agents of destruction of fossils: Chemical
oceans are full of ________
specimens found together doesnt mean ....
species lived together
environment of specimens doesnt mean ....
environment of life
prevalence of fossils doesn't mean....
prevalence in life
2 levels of dating
1. relative (sequencing) 2. Absolute
Can only date ______ rock absolutely
lava hardens into ______
Ash hardens into _____
Kenya, 58 tuffs, dated 8-1 mya
how many years old is homo erectus
all human civilization since agriculture
What in rocks changes throughout time?
The branch of stratigraphy concerned with fossils and their use in dating rock formations
Biostratigraphy measures in what?
chronostratigraphic units (CSU)
Of, relating to, or denoting the fourth epoch of the Tertiary period, between the Oligocene and Pliocene epochs
Cambrian Explosion happened _____ mya
What is Cambrian Explosion?
"big boom" of species
Cenozoic Era - Epochs
Paleocene happened when?
Eocene happened when?
oligocene (monkeys) happened?
miocene (Ape-like) happened
Pilocene (humans) happened?
1.8 mya - presnet
Holocene (humans since agriculture)
10,000 ya (not all anthropologists recognize this era)
hypodigm is what?
catalog of species or finds
a proximate explanation is....
how it works.
ultimate explanation is....
why is it there?
another name for bonobo species is
only primate with prehensile tail
spider monkey (ateline)
first primate ancestor was found ...
Earliest primates were ...
nocturnal, small, and arboreal, tropical rainforest
Primates retain a lot of ______ traits
Retention of an unspecialized postranial skeleton
five digits; clavical
G. Elliot Smith
Insect predation theory
Angiosperm co-evolutionary theory
Lemurs make up ___% of all primates
lorises & galagos (bushbabies); Nocturnal
lemurs, lorises, & tarsiers have grooming claw on ___ digit
Tarsiers do not have _____ ________
marmoses & tamrins
"true" new world monkeys (prehensile tails)
new world monkeys
old world monkeys
old world monkeys, apes
subfamilies of cercopithecoidea