Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 7 Combined

39 terms by wcc96

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Cell specialization

the process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks.

Tissue

group of similar cells that perform a particular function.

Organ

group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.

Organ system

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.

Cell membrain

thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell.

Cell wall

strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.

Lipid bilayer

double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes.

Concentration

the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume.

Diffusion

process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.

Equilibrium

when the concentration of a solute is the same throughtout a solution.

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

Isotonic

when the concentration of two solutions in the same.

Hypertonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes.

Hypotonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.

Facillitated diffusion

movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.

Active transport

energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrain against a concentration difference.

Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane.

Phagocytosis

process in which extensions of cytoplas surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.

Pinocytosis

process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment.

Exocytosis

process by which a cell releases large amounts of material.

Organelle

specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell.

Cytoplasm

material inside the cell membrane - not including the nucleus.

Nuclear envelope

layer of two membranes that surround the nucleus of cell.

Chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.

Chromosome

thread like structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.

Ribosome

small particle in the cell on which protein are assembled; made of RNA and protein.

Endoplasmic reticulum

internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified.

Golgi apparatus

stack of membrains in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Lysosome

cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell.

Vacuole

cell organelle that stores materials such as water; salts; proteins; and carbohydrates.

Mitochondrion

cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.

Chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.

Cytoskeleton

network of protein filaments withing some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.

Centriole

one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope.

Cell

collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life.

Cell theory

idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unites of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.

Nucleus

the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, strucure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities.

Eukaryote

organism whose cells contain nucleus.

Prokaryote

unicellular organism lacking a nucleus.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set