"Socialization: the Internalization of Society" Berger and Luckmann
Since society exists as both objective and subjective reality, any adequate theoretical understanding of it must include both these aspects... These aspects receive their proper recognition if society is understood in terms of an ongoing dialectal process composed of the three moments of externalization, objectivation, and internalization; any analysis in terms of only one or two of these falls short; to be in society is to participate in its dialectic; in every person there is a temporal sequence which inducts them into societal dialectic; beginning or process is internalization; only when this degree of internalization is achieved is one a member of society, and it is brought out by socialization; primary socialization (one undergoes this during childhood and through which they become a member of society) is first, then secondary socialization (any subsequent process that inducts an already socialized individual into new sectors of the objective world of society);primary most important and seondary has to resemble that if primary; ev ery person born into an objective social structure and an objective social world through encountering significant others who are in charge of his socialization; primary involves both cognition and emotion; internalization occurs only as identification occurs; self is a reflected entity, reflecting the attitudes first taken by significant others toward it, therefore the individual becomes what he is addressed by his significant others; individual takes on the roles and attitudes of others, but also takes on their world; to be given an identity involved being assigned a specific place in the world; primary creates in the child's consciousness a pogressive abstraction from the roles and attitudes of specific others to roles and attitudes in general; individual now identifies not only with concrete others but with a generality of others with a society; generalized other implies the internalization of society as such and of the objective reality established therein, and, at the same time, the subjective establishment of a coherent and continuous identity; society, indentity, and reality are subjectively crystallized in same process of internalization; language is both the most important content and the most important instrument of socialization;when generalized other has been crystallized in consciousness, a symmetrical relationship is established between objective and subjective reality and language is the principal vehicle at work; in primary, there is no problem of identification; child internalizaes the world of his significant others as the world, not one of many; primary ends when the concept of the generalized other has been established in the consciousness of the individual.
"Final Note on a Case of Extreme Isolation" Davis
Anna in 1940 had been deprived of normal contact and received a minimum of human care for almost the whole first six years of her life and she is now dead by cause of hemorrhagic jaundice and was approximately 10 and a half; in her very early life, she was moved from place to place; when found she could not talk, walk, or do anything that showed intelligence; after two years, she was able to walk, understand simple commands, feed herself, achieve some neatness, remember people, etc, but did not speak and was like a normal infant of over one year; Professor Francis N. Maxfield predicted that she would reach an adult mental capacity of 6 or 7 years; she did develop speech; her capacities at the time of her death do not amount to more than a 2 and ahlf year old; her mom was unintelligent and her father was very old; she might have had a mental deficiency; another under similar conditions wherein she was in seclusion with her deaf-mute mother and her legs were very bowed; 2nd girl's behavior towards people, especially men, resembled a wile animal, manifesting fear and hostility; many of her actions reembled those of deaf children; thought she was feeble-minded once they concluded she could hear; went through the learning characteristics from 1 to 6 in proper succession and more rapidly than normal; reached a normal level by the time she was eight and a half; she covered in 2 years what normally takes 6; today she is over 14 and has passed th 6th grade; hypothesis that Anna began with an inferior mental capacity is not established' in rare cases of extreme isolation its possible to observe concretely separated two factors in the developent of human personality, the biogenic and sociogenic factors.
"Yes, Father-Sister" Sacks
Mrs. B, a former research chemist had presented a rapid personality change becoming "funny", impulsive, and "superficial"; first thought she was hypomanic, but she actually had a cerebral tumor; she only looks at parts of the author thus calling him by different names depending on what she focuses on; she says "nothing means anything to me"; nothing felt real to her, everything felt equal; the effect of equalization described by Laura; German neurologists call it Witzelsucht or "joking disease"; of all forms of schizophrenia the "sill-happy", so-called "hebephrenic", most resembles the organic amnestic and frontal lobe syndromes and no one returns from this state to tell about it; ceases to be a center to the mind, though its formal intellectual powers may be perfectly preserved.
"Thinking in Pictures" T. Grandin
"Mindfulness and Mindlessness" Langer
nursing home lets patients make a number of small decisions in their daily routines, and these people were more alert, cheerful, active, and many more alive after a year and a half, and thus this started research on the effects of mindfulness and the destrcutive state of mindlessness; when mindless, people treat information as though it were context-free; pilot forgets to check the anti-icer and caused plane to crash because he was not flying in the usual weather and was being mindless; "entrapment by category" is the mindlessness involved when someone asks for wood in exchange for $10,000 and later on you realize you couldve given him your door, though before your door was not, or did not seem like, a piece of wood; we experience the world by creating categories and making distinctions among them; we adopt sets of categories which serve as ways of managing phenomena, and the most fully developed products of these tendencies are ideologies (ex. nationalism); creation of new categories is a mindful activity, mindlessness sets in when we rely too rigidly on categories and distinctions created in the past; Leon Solomons and Gertrude Stein studied "double personalities" or 'split personalities" proposing that mindless performance of the second personality was essentially similar to that of ordinary people, writing and reading can be done automatically, concluded that a vast number of actions that we think of as intelligent can be done automatically; approaching people at copy machines and asked if they could use it while giving sound or senseless reasons; it is not that people don't hear the request the rest of the time, they simply don't think about it actively; interdepartmental memo to offices saying to return to room 247, 90% returned it when memo looked like those used and 60% when it looked different; mindless behavior can arise without a long history of repetition, alomst instantaneously, in fact;
"Becoming a Marijuana User" Becker
concerned with the presence or absence of marijuana use in an individual's behavior; starts that the presence of a given kind of behavior is the result of a sequence of social experiences during which the person acquires a conception of the meaning of the behavior, and perceptions and judgments of objects and situations, all of which make the activity possible and desirable; the motivation or disposition to engage in the activity is built up in the course of learning to engage in it and does not antedate this learning process; seeks to describe the sequence of changes in attitude and experience which led to the use of marijuana for pleasure; novice does not ordinarily get high the first time he smokes marijuana, and several attempts are usually necessary to induce this state (drug could not be smoked "properly"; 1: must learn to use the proper smoking technique in order that his use of the drug will produce some effects in terms of which his conception of it can change; being high consists of two elements: presence of symptoms caused by weed use and the recognition of these symptoms and their connection by the user with his use of the drug; people discontinue use feeling it "does nothing for them"; the novice, eager to feel high, picks up from other users some concrete referents of the term "high" and applies these notions to his own experience; 2: for use to continue, it is necessary not only to use the drug so as to produce effects but also to learn to perceive these effects when they occur, in this way weed acquires meaning for the user as an object which can be used for pleasure; 3: must learn to enjoy the effects he has just learned to experience; given these typically frightening and unpleasant first experiences, the beginner will not continue use unless he learns to redefine the sensations as pleasurable; no one becomes a user without 1) learning to smoke the drug in a way which will produce real effects, 2) learning to recognize the effects and connect them with drug use, and 3) learning to enjoy the sensations he perceives.
"Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional States" Schachter and Singer
cognitive factors may be determinants of emotional states; one labels, interprets, and identifies this stirred up state in terms of the characteristics of the precipitating situation and one's apperceptive mass; in emotion inducing situations, the two factors of physiological arousal and cognitive factors are completely related; when in a state of physiological arousal would lead to the arousal of "evaluative needs" which are pressures that would act on an individual in such a state to understand and label his bodily feelngs; subjects receive epinephrine or placebo, and involve Epinephrine Informed, Epinephrine Ignorant, and Epinephrine Misinformed groups, and a person with them either acts under extreme euphoria or anger; Epi Mis condition's bodily state self-report score is almost twice that in the Epi Inf condition; Epi Mis and Epi Ign acted more euphoric, but Epi Mis more so; emotional level in anger was higher for Epi Mis and Epi Ign and Epi Ign was angrier than Epi Inf; given a state of sympathetic activation, for which no immediately appropriate explanation is available, human subjects can be readily manipulated into states of euphoria, anger, and amusement; 1) given a state of physiological arousal for which an individual has no immediate explanation, he will label this state and describe his feelings in terms of the cognitions available to him, 2) given a state of phyisological arousal for which an individual has a completely appropriate explanation, no evaluative needs will arise and the individual is unlikely to label his feelings in terms of the alternative cognitions available, 3) given the same cognitive circumstances, the individual will react emotionally or describe his feelings as emotions only to the extent that he experiences a state of physiological arousal.
"School Violence and the Culture of Honor" Brown, Osterman, and Barnes
violence in schools; propose that a sociocultural variable known as the "culture of honor" might be a risk factor for school violence; societies with a culture of honor place high emphasis on strength and social regard; southern and western states are more likely to exhibit culture of honor qualities; school violence is often preceded by social marginalization, bullying, romantic rejection, or taunting; culture of honor states are typically hotter, poorer, and more socially unstable; variable included measures of social and economic insecurity, mean state temperatures, and an index of rurality; a higher percentage of high school students in culture of honor states reported having brought weapons to schook at least once in the past month when exmaining the school-violence potential; culture of honor stayed a significant predictor of shootings percapita, had more shootings, and both temperature and social composition were significant predictors, only other significant predictor was economic insecurity; however, state-level demographicvariables were unable to account for the association between culture of honor and our school violence indicators, and were also inconsistent predictors of the school-violence variables across the two studies.
"On the Run: Wanted Men in a Philadelphia Ghetto" Goffman
people trying to not go to jail
"The Color Line and the Canopy" E. Anderson
work place and race
"Looking-glass Self" Cooley
the social origin of self comes by the pathway of intercourse with other persons; one's self appears in a particular mind, and the kind of self-feeling one has is determined by the attitude attributed o the other mind, thus being the looking-glass self; threeb elements: imagination of our appearance to the other person, imagination of his judgment of that appearance, and some sort of self-feeling such as pride or manifestation; process by which self-feeling of the looking-glass sort develops in children may be followed without much difficulty: studying the movement of others as closely as they do, they soon see a connection between their own acts and changes in those movements, that is, they perceive their own influence or power over persons; affection, at any age, exists when the passion to influence others seems to overbalance the established character and give it an obvious twist or pose; the oyung performer soon learns to be different things to different people, showing that he begins to apprehend personality and to foresee its operation; imagination cooperating wih instinctive self-feeling has already created a social "I," and this has become a principal object of interest and endeavor: progress from this point is chiefly in the way of a greater definiteness, fullness, and inwardness in the imagination of the other's state of mind.
"The Self, the I, and the Me" G.H. Mead
the word "self" is reflexive and indicates that which can be both subject and object and this object has been distinguished as conscious; reason cannot become inpersonal unless it takes an objective, non-affective attitude toward itself, otherwise we just have consciousness not self-consciousness; the individual experiences himself as such, not directly, but only indirectly, from the particular standpoints of other individual memners of the same social group, or from generalized standpoint of the social group as a whole to which he belongs; the importance of what we term "communication" lies in the fact that it provides a form of behavior in which the organism or the individual may become an object to himself; the beginning of the self as an object is to be found in the experiences of people that lead to the conception of a "double"; the self is essentially a social structure and it arises in social experience; the conversatio of gestures is the beginning of communication; he says something, and that calls out a certain reply in himself which makes him change what he was going to say; we mean by significant speech that the action is one that affects the individual himself, and that the effect upon the individual himself is oart of the intelligent carrying-out of the conversation with others; the very process of thinking is simply an inner conversation that goes on, but it is a conversation of gestures which in its completion implies the expression of that which one thinks to an audience; we dividde ourselves up in all sorts of different selves with reference to our acquaintances; it is the social process itself that is responsible for the appearance of the self; the unity and structure of the complete self reflects the unity nd structure of the social process as a whole; the various elementary selves which constitute a complete self are the various aspects of the structure of that complete self answering to the various aspects of the structure of teh social process as a whole: the structure of teh complete self is thus a reflection of the complete social process; the phenomenon of dissociation of personality is caused by the breaking up of the complete, unitary self into the component selves of which it is composed.
"The Digital Self" Zhao
according to symbolica interactionism, others serve as a looking glass in which we see ourselves; through Mead's work, self evolves through childhoos in two main stages: first, self is constituted by the organization of the attitudes of the significant others in particular social contexts, and second, self is constituted by the organization of the attitudes of the generalized other that represent the views of the larger society;parents have dominant influence over child's sense of self and then peers' influence increases; teenagers like to meet strangers online because: they are at a stage in their life when they begin to explore their place in the world, perceive the online world as a safer place to interact with others, and they look for a "soul mate" or someone they can really relate to; "E Audience"; digital self is constructed solely through online interaction without the intervention of nonverbal feedback and the influence of traditional environmental factors; the digital self is: inwardly oriented, narrative in nature, retractable, and multiplied; people more willing to bare souls online because: people believe that the disembodied text mdoe in which they communicate with each other in the online world ensures anonymity and they are able to conceal their offline identities in telecopresence; digital self more oriented toward one's inner world; have to provide some type of self description; in the online world a version of one's self can be erased relatively easily; brings the diversity of the world to anyone; create a self-selected online environment onducive to the formation of a digital self that is more insultaed than its offline counterpart; self-selection is a prevailing phenomenon in the online world.
"The Reflex Arc Concept" Dewey
reflex arc theory is stupid, coordination
"Identity Careers of Older Gay Men and Lesbians" Rosenfeld
how people experience their later years is strongly influenced by the historical context in which they came of age; identity careers: one's sense later in life of who and what they were and have become; the experiecne of gay liberation in the late 1960s and 70s affecte their recollections fo sexual experiences and the identity issues that flowed from them; these subjects were members of a cohort who formed sexual identities at a time of tremendous change, and they were now constructing narratives of life experiences that reflected just how much their identity careers were still being shaped by these events, even later in life; the construction of homosexuality as a pathological condition provided gay men and women with both an identity category in which to place their often-secretive feelings and a language with which to discuss and describe themselves and their position in society, this language was negative and stigmatizing; while some homosexuals embraced the stigmatized roles made available by the gay underground, others saw their sexual desires as a condition to be suppressed, remainging single and celibate or adopting heterosexual marriage patterns; spoke of "always knowing"; most spoke of searching for accounts of these differences in textual and cultural representations and others' remarks; accounts formulated same-sex desires as pathological yet curable condition; feeling caught between a need to understand and pursue their desires on the one hand and to avoid the negative implications of a stigmatized identity on the other; many found the implications of a stigmatized identity so severe that they workedto avoid interpreting their desires in its terms, managing the tension between their desires and the consequences of enacting them by distancing themselves from one, the other, or both; distancing refers to the variety of ways in which subjects modified, weakened, or resisted the applicability of the term "homosexual" to themselves, made same-sex desire a background concern; some entered conventional heterosexual marriages, less as a means of "hiding" their hoosexuality than as a way to achieve a heterosexual identity that provided positive rewards, others constructed a kind of liminal heterosexuality by embracing the medicalized formulation of homosexuality as curable through therapy, which provided a positive and rewarded role and promised a future heterosexual identity; some described their first sexual encounter as clarifying their desires; meeting and associating with other homosexuals either alone or in groups was key to subjects' interpreting their desires in a new light; explained how changing relational contexts inspired a reformation of homosexuality and its relation to self; for those who identified as homosexual beofre gay liberation, close relations with family hinged on avoiding discussion of their homosexuality (respect family's feelings), those who came out by way of gay liberation were committed to broaching the issue with family members at various times and places; some sujects upset and insulyted when other members of their families disclosed their homosexuality to them; many expressed regret that they lacked the "support system" that the traditional family offers, many also claimed that the absence of traditioal family ties made for a better life in old age.
"Shades of White" Perry
white students at Valley Groves did not reflecton or define white indentity as a culture and social location to the extent that the white youth at Clavey did; white identities at Clavey tended to be altogether more variable and contradictory than at Valley Groves; naturalization: embedding of historically constituted cultural practices in that which is taken for granted and seems "normal" and natural, shown at Valley Groves; rationalization: embedding of whiteness within a Western rational epistemology and value paradigm that marginalizes or subordinates all things "cultural", shown at Clavey; culturelessness can serve as a measure of white racial superiority; main focus was what role, if any, close interracial association in school had on the racial consciousness and identities of white youth; "white european culture" refers to: althought the dominant culture in u.s. is composed of different cultures of the peoples that populate the u.s. several of its core characteristics are of european origin and by virtue of being numerically and politically dominated whites tend to share certain dispositions, worldviews, and identities constituted by that especially in predominnatly white communities; students' measuring sticks for gauging normal styles, behaviors, and expectations were the common, everyday practices and the system of rewards at school; at schoolwide rallies and events, collective consensus, reinforcement, and approval of white american norms came from an even wider span of individuals: school adults, other students, and the outside community; the homecoming rally and parade were packed with assumptions, values, behaviors, and origin tories that privleged white european american perspectives as well as gender, sexuality, and class-based norms; the us-them construction revolves around "majority" and the "minority"; Clavey- this meant that the styles, slangs, vernaculars, and demeanors that marked identifications with a certain clique or subculture simultaneously inferred racial identification, in a word, peer group activities racialized youth; Hall defines three things that are distinctive of black diasporic culture: 1) style as "the subject of what is going on", 2) music as the "deep structure of [black] cultural life, and 3) the body as "canvases of representation"; the rally and game were attended by and played predominantly to a majority black audience; message was that white could not relate to the dominant culture; Both- common was the explicit and implicit defintion of white as empty, meaningles, bland, and without tradition; two school pratices stood out in terms of the ways they seemed to structure the meanings all youth gave to their experience through a western rational value paradigm: tracking structre and "multicultural" programs and discourses (cultural assemblies and multicultural week); two prevalent sets of assumptions about white culture that this research advances: white people experience themselves as culturally empty because whiteness is hegemonic and therefore undefined and white culture is experienced as empty because there is no white culture; racial identities are made through teh interaction of the specific social, structural, political, and cultural composition of a given context thus meaning that racial identities are not fixed or uniform but variable and multiple.
"Being Middle Eastern American: Identity Negotiation in the Context of the 'War on Terror" Marvasti
Goffman's view on stigma: it is a variable social construct and not a fixed characteristicand is bound by social roles and expectations and derives its meaning from particular social contexts; when forced to explain themselves, these disruptions are significant on their "moral careers" in which they judge themselves and others over time; this view of stigma is consistent with the symbolic interactionist premise that objects are not inherently meaningful, rather individuals assign meanings in general and identities in particular through interaction; stigma is realized in the reflexive interplay between social conditions and self presentation; current terror warning system acts as a catalyst; humourus accounting: when questioned about their ethnic identity, respondents sometimes use humor as a way of shifting attention away from the stereotypes that threaten their identities, diversion technique, use humor to establish a common ground; educational accounting: account-giver assumed role of an educator, informing and instructing the account-taker about relevant topics, strategy of "normaization" combats stigma by correcting stereotypes; defiant accounting: account-giver exerts agency by challenging the other's right and the rationale to request the account, the stigmatized make explicit demands for counter-explanations from the "normals", interaction is expilicitly focused on the fairnesss of the exchange between the account-giver and the account-taker, especially likely to use this when the request for an account seemd unfaircan either shield the account-giver from a potential humiliating process or generate additional requests and demands; cowering: "defensive cowering" after enduring a stigma for a long time, sinply go along with the stereotypical demands of the setting in order to avoid greater harm; passing: information control and the concealment of stigmatizing attributes from "normals," means eliminating the need for an account, move to an ethnically diverse region, give an ambiguous account in response to ethnic identity questions, changing one's mind, media have constructed passing among Middle Eastern Americans as an extension of the "evil terrorist plot"; accounting encounters.
"Double Consciousness and the Veil" W.E.B. DuBois
when a child, it dawned upon him that he was different from the others, shut off from the world by a vasy veil; after the Egyptian, Indian, Greek, Roman, Teuton, and Mongolian, the Negro is the 7th son, born with a veil, and gifted with second-sight in this American world; twoness: American and Negro, and he wishes to make it possible to be both without being cursed; nation has not found peace from its sins and has yet to find freedom in his promised land; as time flew, he grasped an ideal of liberty demanded for its attainment powerful means, and these in the 15th Amendment gave him; it changed the child of Emancipation to the youth with dawning self-consciousness, self-realization, self-respect, in these sombre forests of his striving his own soul rose before him, and he saw himself-darkly as through a veil, and yet he saw in himself some faint revelation of his power, of his mission, he began to have a dim feeling that, to attain his place in the world, he must be himself, and not another.
"Unmasking 'Racial Micro Aggressions" DeAngelis
racial microagression: everyday insults, indignities, and demeaning messages sent to people of color by well-intentioned white people who are unaware of the hidden messages being sent to them, term first popularized by Chester M. Pierce; aversive racism: whites' aversion to being seen as prejudiced, given their conscious adherence to egalitarian principles; microassaults: conscious and intentional actions or slurs; microinsults: verbal and nonverbal communications that subtly convery rudeness and insensitivity and demean a person's racial heritage or identity; microinvalidations: communications that subtly exclude, negate, or nullify the thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of color (asking asians where they are from); rebuttal to Sue's arguments: restricts rather than promotes candid interaction between members of different racial groups and enforces a victim mentality by creating problems where none exists.
"Racism in the English Language" Moore
language not only develops in conjunction with a society's historical, economic, and political evolution; it also reflects that society's attitudes and thinking, language not only expresses ideas and concepts but actually shapes thought; aspects of racism discussed include terminology, symbolism, politics, ethonocentrism, and context; symbolism as white as positive and black as negative is pervasive in our culture; three definitions of white are "fairness of complexion, purity, and innocence" and these definitions affect the standard beauty in our culture in which whiteness represents the norm; some words and phrases that are commonly used represent particular perspectives and frames of reference, and these often distort the understanding of the reader or listener (slave); "culturally deprived," "economically disadvantaged," and "underdeveloped" (which blacme the victim) are other terms which mislead and distort our awareness of reality; many words lead to a demeaning characterization of groups of people (discovery, victory and massacre, tribe); eurocentrism turns definitions of words around to serve the purpose of distorting history and justifying euro american conquest of the native american homelands; the generalized application of "tribal" in reference to africans-as well as the failure to acknowledge the religious, cultural, and social diversity of african peoples-is a decidedly racist dynamic (image of savage and pagan); words that would normally have positive connotations can have entirely different meanings when used in a racial context (intelligent or qualified); the depiction in movies and children's books of third world people speaking english is often itself racist.
"Talking Back" bell hooks
"talking back" meant speaking as an equal to an authority figure, daring to disagree, and sometimes just having an opinion; courageous act; she craved to have a voice when she heard black women speak; her punishments were intended to suppress all possibility that she would create her own speech; with feminists, silence is seen as a woman's submission to ptriarchal authority, "right speech of womanhood"; for black women, strive to change the nature and direction of their speech to be one that is heard; why she started to dream to write; diaries are precious; madness was the punishment for too much talk if you were female; learned to stand her ground through "Ain't I a Woman"; some black women that publish have nervous break downs because they cannot bear the harsh responses; true speaking is an act of resistance; even after she published her books she would speak of wanting to become a writer; made her name to construct a writer-identity that would challenge and subdue all impulses leading me away from speech into silence; initial act of talking back was empowering.
"Interracial Roommate Relationships: an Experimental Field Test of the Contact Hypothesis" Shook and Fazio
contact hypothesis: prejudice stems from a lack of knowledge and exposure, and thus increased interactoon with members of different groups should allow individuals to gain information about other groups and should lead to a reduction in hostility and prejudice; the MODE model posits that when individuals have the motivation and opportunity, their behavior, including their verbal reports, may be guided by a more deliberative process rather than by their automatically activated attitudes; positive, non-prejudiced responses may be indicative not of a person's automatically activated attitude, but of a motivational goal not to be considered prejudiced; purpose of study to test the effect of intergroup contact on automatically activated racial attitudes; dorms because they are: equal status, cooperation, common goals, support of authorities, intimacy, and friendship; differences between students in same-race and interracial rooms were evident across all measures at both the beginning and end of the autumn quarter; interracial roommate relationships were less satisfying, less socially involving, and less comfortable; most of the relationship evaluations of students in same-race rooms declined significantly over time except for comfort with the participant's friends; white freshmen in interracial rooms exhibited significantly more positive automatically activated racial attitudes at second session, supporting the contact hypothesis; participants in interracial rooms exhibited a significant reduction in intergroup anxiety; results indicate that interracial roommate relationships are generally less agreeable to whites than are same-race roommate relationships.