Digestive System

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From the mouth to the anus, accessory organs, perioneum, GI tract organs, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, gallbladder, liver, salivary glands, mesentery

Ingestion

taking food into the mouth

Secretion

release water, acid, buffers, enzymes into the lumen of the GI tract

Mixing and Propulsion

churning and pushing food through the GI tract

Digestion

mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

Absorption

passing of digested products from GI tract to the blood and lymph

Defecation

elimination of feces from the GI tract

Gastrointestinal tract

tube from mouth to anus, lumen is the hole that runs through the tube

Organs of GI tract

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

Accessory organs

salivary glands, tongue, teeth, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Peritoneum

Double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominopelvic wall and organs

Visceral layer

covers the organs of the GI tract below the diaphragm

Parietal layer

lines the abdominopelvic wall

Peritoneal cavity

space between parietal and visceral layer filled with serous fluid

Retroperitoneal organs

kidneys and pancreas

Mesentery

a membrane that attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall

Falciform ligament

a ligament that attaches part of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall

Greater omentum

drapes over the transverse colon and small intestine

Mouth

where mechanical and chemical digestion starts with the help of the cheeks and lips

hard palate

hard front portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity

soft palate

smooth muscles of the posterior roof of the mouth where the uvula hangs & helps close off the nasopharynx when swallowing to prevent food from getting in

Fauces

opens to the oropharynx and palatine tonsils

Pharynx (throat)

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

Nasopharynx

posterior to nasal cavity, soft palate muscles prevents food from entering nasal cavity

Oropharynx

both food and air pass through

Epiglottis

moves up during swallowing to allow food into the pharynx and moves down to cover the larynx to keep food out of the airway

Laryngopharynx

lowest portion of the pharynx, connects with both the esophagus(food tube) and the larynx (voice box) it is a passageway for food & air

Esophagus

posterior to the trachea (windpipe) runs from the laryngopharynx to the stomach

Stomach

J-shaped, below diaphragm, connected to the esophagus and small intestine, it is a mixing/holding chamber

The stomach

secretes mucous, pepsin, and hydrochloric acid which aids in breaking down food

Regions of the stomach

cardia, fundus, body, pylorus, pyloric sphincter, rugae

Cardia

surrounds the opening of the stomach

Fundus

dome shaped top of stomach

Body

the large central portion of the stomach

Pylorus

the narrow bottom area of the stomach

Pyloric sphincter

seperates the stomach from the first part of the small intestine

Rugae

interior folds of the stomach that allows it to expand

Small intestine

approximately 10 feet long where the majority of digestion and absorption occur

Small intestine

has 3 parts, duodenum less than 1 ft, jejunum 8 ft, ileum 12 ft

ileocecal sphincter

joins the small intestine to the large intestine

Large intestine

approximately 5 feet long absorbs large amounts of water, forms and expulses fecal matter, goes from the cecum where the appendix is attached, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

From the rectum

to the anal canal, to the internal anal sphincter (involuntary), to the external anal sphincter (voluntary) to the anus

3 pairs of salivary glands

secretes saliva into the oral cavity are the parotid (near the ear), submandibular (floor of the mouth), and sublingual (under the tongue)

Tongue

manipulates food during chewing and the lingual frenulum underneath limits posterior movement

Teeth

aids in mechanical digestion

Tooth structure

crown, neck, root, enamel, dentin, gingiva, pulp, cemetum, root canal, alveolar bone, peridontal ligament

Pancreas

located behind the stomach secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine duodenum via the pancreatic duct

Liver

inferior to the diaphragm, aids in emulsification by producing bile that helps break down lipids, has two lobes: larger right lobe-falciform ligament and the smaller left lobe

Gallbladder

hangs from the lower front margin of the liver and stores the bile produced by the liver

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