AP PSYCH

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141 terms

monism

seeing the mind and body as different aspects of the same thing

dualism

seeing the mind and body as two different things that interact with each other

william james

wrote the book principles of psychology; a functionalist

Mary whiton calkins

first woman president of the American Psychological association

functionalism

early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment

behavioral approach

psychological perspective concerned with behavioral reactions to stimuli; learning as a result of experience

Ivan Pavlov

known for classical conditioning of dogs

john watson

known for experiments in classical aversive conditioning

b f skinner

known for experiments in operant conditioning

psychoanalytic/psychodynamic approach

psychological perspective concerned with how unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives, and defenses influence behavior

sigmund freud

father of psychoanalysis

humanistic approach

psychological perspective concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in growth toward one's potential

carl rogers/abraham maslow

humanistic psychologists

biological approach

psychological perspective concerned with physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes

cognitive approach

psychological perspective concerned with how we receive, store, and process information; think/reason; and use language

jean piaget

studied cognitive development in children

evolutionary approach

psychological perspective concerned with how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to survival and spread of our ancestors's genes. look at universal behaviors shared by all people

sociocultural approach

psychological perspective concerned with how cultural differences affect behavior

eclectic

use of techniques and ideas from a variety of approaches

clinical psychologists

evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders

counseling psychologist

help people adapt to change or make changes in their lifestyle

developmental psychologists

study psychological development throughout the lifespan

educational psychologists

focus on how effective teaching and learning take place

engineering psychologists and human factors psychologists

people who do research on how people function best with machines

experimental psychologist

do research to add new knowledge to the field

forensic psychologists

apply psychological principles to legal issues

health psychologists

concentrate on biological, psychological and social factors involved in health and illness

industrial/organizational psychologists

aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace

neuropsychologist

explore the relationships between brain/nervous system and behavior.

personality psychologists

focus on traits, attitudes, and goals of the individual

psychometricians

focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data

theories

organized sets of concepts that explain phenomena

hypothesis

prediction of how two or more factors are likely to be related

replication

repetition of the methods used in a previous experiment to see whether the same methods will yield the same results

independent variable

the factor the researcher manipulates in a controlled experiment (cause)

dependent variable

the behavior or mental process that is measured in an experiment or quasi-experiment (effect)

population

all of the individuals in the group to which the study applies

sample

the subgroup of the population to which the study applies

random selection

choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen

experimental group

the subgroup of the sample that receives the treatment or independent variable

control group

the comparison group; the subgroup of the sample that is similar to the experimental group in every way except for the presence of the independent variable

random assignment

division of the sample into groups so that every individual has an euql chance of being put in any group or condition

confounding variables

factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable

operational definition

a description of the specific procedure used to determine the presence of a variable

experimenter bias

a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained

demand characteristics

clues participants discover about the purpose of the study that suggest how they should respond

single-blind procedure

research design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental or control group

double-blind procedure

research design in which neither participants nor observers know which group is controlled or experimented

placebo

a physical or psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experiment group but contains no active ingredient

placebo effect

a response to the belief that the independent variable will have an effect, rather than the actual effect of the independent variable. considered a confounding variable

reliability

consistency or repeatability of results

statistics

a field that involves the analysis of numerical information about representative sample of populations

variability

the spread or dispersion of a set of research data or distribution

standard deviation

measures the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set

normal distribution

bell-shaped curve that represents data about how lots of human characteristics are dispersed in the population

percentile scores

the percentage of scores at or below a particular score

inferential statistics

statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions

statistical significance (p)

the condition that exists when the probably that the observed findings are due to chance is less than 1/20

neuropsychologists

those who explore the relationships between brain/nervous systems and behavior.

lesions

precise destructions of brain tissue. enables more systematic study of the loss of function resulting from surgical removal, cutting of neural connections, or destruction by chemical applications.

ablation

surgical removal of brain tissue

computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT)

shows structure and/or the extent of a lesion by creating a computerized image using x-rays passed through the brain

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

creates a more detailed computerized image by using a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves that cause emission of signals that depend up on the density of tissue.

EEG (electroencephalogram)

an amplified tracing of brain activity produced when electrodes positioned over the scalp transmit signals about the brain's electrical activity to a machine

evoked potentials

EEGs resulting from a response to a specific stimulus presented to the subject

positron emission tomography (PET)

shows brain activity when radioactively tagged glucose rushes to active neurons and emits positrons

functional MRI

shows brain activity at a higher resolution that the PET scan when changes in oxygen concentration near active neurons alter magnetic qualities

CNS (central nervous system)

brain and spinal cord

PNS (peripheral nervous system)

portion of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. includes all of the sensory and motor neurons, and subdivisions called the somatic and autonomic systems.

autonomic nervous system

subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves and innervate smooth and heart muscles.

sympathetic nervous system

subdivision of the ANS whose stimulation results in responses that helps your body deal with stressful events

parasympathetic nervous system

subdivision of ANS whose stimulation calms your body following sympathetic stimulation by restoring normal body processes

somatic nervous system

subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves that innervate skeletal (voluntary) muscle

spinal cord

portion of the cns below the level of the medulla

brain

portion of the cns above the spinal cord

reptilian brain (part of evolutionary model of the brain)

medulla pons cerebellum

old mammalian brain (part of the evolutionary model of the brain)

limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus

new mammalian brain (part of the evolutionary model of the brain)

cerebral cortex

hindbrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)

medulla pons cerebellum

midbrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)

region with parts involved in eye reflexes and movements

forebrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)

limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex

convolutions

wrinkles of the cerebral cortex that increases the surface area of the brain

gyri

folding out portions of the convolutions of the cerebral cortex

sulci

folding in portions of the convolutions of the cerebral cortex

contralaterality

control of one side of your body by the other side of your brain

medulla oblongata

regulates heart rhythm, blood flow, breathing rate, digestion, vomiting

pons

includes portion of the reticular activating system or reticular formation critical for arousal and wakefulness; sends information to and from the medulla, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex

cerebellum

controls pressure, equilibrium, and movement

basal ganglia

regulates initiation of movements, balance, eye movements, and posture

thalamus

relays visual, auditory, taste, and somatosensory information to/from appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

controls feeding behavior, drinking behavior, body temperature, sexual behavior, threshold for rage behavior, action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system, and secretions of hormones of the pituitary

amygdala

influences emotions such as aggression, fear, and self-protective behaviors

hippocampus

enables formation of new long-term memories

cerebral cortex

center for higher order processes such as thinking, planning, judgement; receives and processes sensory information and directs movement

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortext that do not have specific sensory or motor functions, but are involved in higher mental functions such as thinking, planning, and communicating

occipital lobes

primary area for processing visual information

parietal lobes

front strip is somatosensory cortex that processes sensory information including touch, temperature, and pain from body parts; association areas perceive objects

frontal lobes

interpret and control emotional behaviors, make decisions, carry out plants; motor cortex strip just in front of somatosensory cortex initiates movements and integrates activities of skeletal muscles; produces speech (Broca's area)

broca's area

located in left frontal lobe. controls production of speech

temporal lobes

primary area for hearing, understanding language, understanding music/tonality, and processing smell

wernicke's area

located in temporal lobes. controls understanding of language and making meaningful languages

aphasia

impairment of the ability to understand or use language

glial cells

supportive cells of the nervous system that guide the growth of developing neurons. They help provide nutrition for and get rid of wastes of neurons. Also forma an insulating sheath around neurons that speeds conduction.

neuron

the basic unit of structure and function of your nervous system. receive, process, and transmit information.

cell body

also called the cyton or soma.part of the neuron that contains cytoplasm and the nucleus, which directs synthesis of such substances as neurotransmitters

axon

a long, single conduction fiber extending from the cell body of a neuron that transmits an action potential that branches and end sin tips called terminal buttons

dendrites

branching tubular processes of neuron that have receptor sites for receiving information

myelin sheath

a fatty covering of the axon made my glial cells, which speeds up conduction of the action potential

terminal buttons

tips at the end of axons that secrete neurotransmitters when stimulated by the action potential

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers released by the terminal buttons of the presynaptic neuron into the synapse

acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles, helps regulate heart muscles, is involved in memory and also transmits messages between the brain and spinal cord. lack of this is associated with alzheimer's disease.

dopamine

neurotransmitter that stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize hormones and affects alertness, attention, and movement. lack associated w/ parkinsons, access associated w/ schizophrenia

glutamate

neurotransmitter that stimulates cells throughout the brain, but especially in the hypothalamus. associated with memory formation and information processing

serotonin

neurotransmitter associate with arousal, sleep, appetite, moods, and emotions. lack is associated with depression

endorphin

a neurotransmitter similar to the opiate morphine that relieves pain and may induce feelings of pleasure

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

a neurotransmitter that inhibits firing of postsynapitic neurons. Huntington's disease and seizures are associated with malfunctions of these systems

action potential

firing of a neuron. a net flow of sodium ions into the cell that causes a rapid change in potential across the membrane when stimulation reaches a threshold

all-or-none principle

that law that the neurons either generates an action potential when the stimulated reaches a threshold or doesn't fire when stimulation is below threshold. the strength of the action potential is constant whenever it occurs

nodes of ranvier

spaces between segments of myelin on the axons of the neurons

saltatory conduction

rapid conduction of impulses when the axon is myelinated since depolarizations jump from node to node

synapse

region of communication between the transmitting presynaptic neuron and receiving postsynaptic neuron, muscles, or gland, consisting of the presynaptic terminal buttons, a tiny space and receptor sites typically on the postsynaptic dendrites

excitatory neurotransmitter

chemical secreted at terminal button that causes the neuron on the other side of the synapse to generate an action potential

inhibitory neurotransmitter

chemical secreted at terminal button that reduces or prevents neural impulses in the postsynaptic dendrites

reflex

simplest form of behavior

reflex arc

the path over which the reflex travels, which typically includes a receptor, sensory or afferent neuron, interneuron, motor or efferent neuron, and effector

sensory receptor

cell typically in sense organs hat initiates action potentials which then travel along sensory/afferent neurons to the CNS

afferent neuron

also called a sensory neruon. nerve cell in your PNS that transmits impulses from receptors to the brin or spinal cord

interneuron

nerve cell int eh CNS that transmits impulses between sensory and motor neurons. neural impulses travel one way along the neuron from dendrites to axons to terminal buttons, and among neurons from the receptor to the effector.

efferent neuron

also called a motor neuron, the nerve cell in your pns that transmits impulses from sensory or interneurons to muscle cells that contract or gland cells that secrete

effector

muscle cell that contracts or gland cell that secretes

endocrine system

ductless glands that typically secrete hormones directly into the b lood, which help regulate body and behavioral processes

hormone

chemical messenger that travels through the blood to a receptor site on a target organ

pineal gland

endocrine gland in the brain that produces melatonin that helps regulate circadian rhythms and is associated with season affective disorder

pituitary gland

endocrine gland in brain that produces stimulating hormones, which promote secretion by other important glands

thyroid gland

endocrine gland in the nck that produces thyroxins, which stimulates and maintains metabolic activites

parathyroids

endocrine glands in neck that produce a hormone which helps maintain calcium ion level in blood necessary for normal functioning of neurons

adrenal glands

endocrine glands atop the kidneys.

adrenal cortex

outer layer of adrenal glands, produces steroid hormones such as cortisal,which is a stress hormone

adrenal medulla

the core of the adrenal glands, secretes adrenaline and non-adrenaline, which prepare the body for fight or flight like the sympathetic nervous system

pancreas

gland near the stomach that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate body sugar. imbalances result in diabetes and hypoglycemia

ovaries and testes

gonad in females and males respectively that produce hormones necessary for reproduction and development of secondary sex characteristics

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