Periodic Table Study Guide Ch 4

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What are the subatomic particles?

protons, neutrons, and electrons

Atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Why are atoms electrically neutral?

the number of protons equals the number of electrons

What is the Charge, mass and location of a proton?

C-1+
M-1
L-nucleus

What is the Charge, mass and location of a neutron?

C-0
M-1
L-nucleus

What is the Charge, mass and location of an electron?

C-1-
M-1/1836
L-electron cloud

How did Mendeleev organize the first periodic table of elements?

in order of increasing atomic mass

How are the elements arranged in the modern periodic table?

in order of increasing atomic number from left to right and top to bottom

What are columns in the periodic table called?

groups of families

What do elements in the same family or group have in common?

same number of valence electrons

Luster

the state or quality of shining by reflecting light

Malleability

a term used to describe material that can be pounded into shapes

Magnetism

the properties of attracting to a magnet

Electrical conductivity

the ability of an object to transfer electric current

Ductile

a term used to describe a material that can be pulled oout into a long wire

What are the three categories of elements on the periodic table?

metal, nonmetal, semi metal

What is the family name for group 1 elements?

alkali metals

What is the family name for group 2 elements?

alkaline earth metals

What is the family name for group 17 elements?

halogens

What is the family name for group 18 elements?

inert gases

What is the most reactive group of metals?

alkali metals

What is the most reactive group of nonmetals?

halogens

What are the two most common alkali metals?

Sodium, Potassium

What are the two most common alkaline earth metals?

Calcium, Magnesium

Which group of elements do not ordinarily form compounds?

Inert gases/ group 18

What is the most useful property of semi metals?

semi conductors

What happens during radioactive decay?

the atomic nuclei of unstable isotopes release fast moving particles and energy called radiation

Periods

horizontal rows on the periodic table

Chemical symbol

a one or two letter representation of an element

In which state of matter are most nonmetals?

gases

Semiconductor

a material that conducts current under certain conditions

What happens to the reactivity of metals as you move from left to right across the periodic table?

less reactive

Atomic number equals the number of_____

protons

Atomic mass equals the number of___+___

protons+ neutrons

The number of electrons equals the number of___

protons

Properties of Alkali metals

very reactive, very soft, never found uncombined in nature, shiny, malleable, react violently with water

What is the name of the elements in groups 3-12?

transition metals

Isotopes

an atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element

What are the seven diatomic particles?

Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine

What can you predict from an elements location on the periodic table?

properties

Which part of an atom makes up most of its atomic mass?

nucleus

Which part of an atom makes up most of its volume?

electron cloud

What do elements in the same period have in common?

same number of energy levels

What part of an isotope increases as you go left to right?

neutrons

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