Communication channels that consist of printed materials, such as newspapers and magazines
Communication channels that involve electronic transmission such as radio, television and the internet
influencing what issues are on the public agenda through the decision of what stories to cover
influencing the public's perception of certain people, events, and issues by the emphasis given to particular characteristics of them
the process through which the media emphasize particular aspects of a news story, thereby influencing the public's perception of the story
A televised comment, lasting for only a few seconds that captures a thought or perspective and has an immediate impact on the viewers
The effort to make the delivery of information more attractive by dressing it up with entertainment.
When the press is biased to one party in their information in their paper.
New Century Journalism
more objective due to professionalism movement and economic incentives.
required the holders of broadcast licenses to grant equal time to opposing political view points. 1949 - 1987
the tendency to make coverage and programming decisions based on what will attract a large audience and maximize profits
advertising undertaken by or on behalf of a political candidate to familiarize voters with the candidate and his or her views on campaign issues, also advertising for or against policy issues.
Negative political advertising
purpose of discrediting an opposing candidate in the eyes of the voters.
a negative political advertisement that attacks the character of an opposing candidate.
a political advertisement that focuses on a particular issue. Issue ads can be used to support or attack a candidate.
First national televised presidential debate. Nixon appeared nervous. Radio listeners thought Nixon won, TV viewers thought Kennedy won.
Managed news coverage
news coverage that is manipulated by a campaign manager or political consultant to gain media exposure for a political candidate.
A reporter's slant on or interpretation of a particular event or action
A political candidate's press adviser, who tries to convince reporters to give a story or event concerning the candidate a particular 'spin'
a designated area created following major political events where media officials go to hear from partisans who give their interpretation of events.
Nature of talk radio
17% of the public listen to talk radio. They tend to be conservative, male, and middle-aged. Talk radio hosts tend not to observe any journalistic conventions.
The collection, analysis and dissemination of information online by independent journalists, scholars, policticians and the general citizenry.
The distribution of audio or video files to a computer or mobile.
The use of Twitter during protests in Iran in 2009 was considered so important that the Obama administration asked Twitter not to update their services because it would interfere with communications among protesters.
online activists who support the candidate but are not controlled by the candidate's organization.
Difficulties with 24/7 exposure
Difficult for candidates to control their campaigns - the possibility of information distributed on the Internet destroying a candidate's campaign and reputation is now a permanent fixture of politics.
"God damn America...for killing innocent people." -Wright (Obama's Reverend) Obama number fell immediately, he ultimately left the church.
a primary in which voters can vote for a party's candidates regardless of whether they belong to the party.
a primary in which only party members can vote to choose that party's candidates.
an effort to make their primaries more important in the political process many states have moved their primary elections to earlier dates.
a professional political adviser who, for a fee, works on an area of a candidate's campaign. Includes: Campaign managers, pollsters, media advisers, etc.
the comprehensive plan developed by a candidate and his or her advisers for winning an election. The strategy includes the candidate's position on issues, slogan, advertising plan, press events, personal appearances, and other aspects of the campaign.
Obama's internet campaign
Obama's campaign relied on the internet for fund-raising, targeting supporters, and creating local political organizations. Due to his use of the internet Obama was able to avoid much of the fund-raising time many candidates must deal with. Of the $58 million raised by Obama's campaign, $16.4 million of it came from donations of $200 or less.
George Bush's campaign advisor Karl Rove pioneered a new campaign technique; which is a process that involves collecting as much information as possible about voters in a gigantic database and then filtering out various groups for special attention. (An example of Rove's technique was his identification of education-conscious Hispanic mothers in New Mexico. These women were sent messages about Bush's education policy).
A new technique used in 2008 by both Republicans and Democrats was the entirely web-based behavioral targeting; which is a technique that uses information about people's online behavior, such as the pages they visit and the searches they make, to tailor the advertisements they see. This technique is controversial because a cookie loaded onto someone's computer essentially gets to 'know' a person's preferences
Social media in '08 election
Obama's followers are all younger and more technological advanced therefore there are 10x more followers on social media sites for Obama rather than to old Republicans for McCain.
an official meeting of a political party to choose its candidates. At the state and local level nominating conventions select delegates to represent the citizens of their geographic areas at a higher-level convention.
a person selected to represent the people of one geographic area at a party convention.
largely consist of party leaders who have not pledged to vote for any candidate in particular.
an election held within each of the two major parties to choose the party's candidates for the general election. Voters choose the candidate directly, rather than through delegates. Most Congressional, state, and local elections use direct primaries.
one in which delegates are chosen to elect a nominee. Indirect primaries are used to elect a presidential candidate in each party. Some of the delegates are pledged delegates who announce openly who they will support. A minority of delegates are unpledged and can vote for whatever candidate they want.
A regularly scheduled election to choose the U.S. president, vice president and senators and representatives in Congress. General elections are held in even-numbered years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
An election that is held at the state or local level when the voters must decide an issue before the next general election or when vacancies occur by reason of death or resignation.
a representative from one of the political parties who is allowed to monitor a polling place to make sure that the election is run fairly and to avoid fraud.
a member of the electoral college who are selected during each presidential election year by the states' political parties.
the group of electors who are selected by the voters in each state to elect officially the president and vice president.
All of the citizens eligible to vote in a given election.
A person who identifies himself or herself as being a supporter of a particular political party
A party member who helps to organize and oversee party functions and planning during and between campaigns.
Why people join parties
Generally, people belong to a political party because they agree with many of its main ideas and support some of its candidates.
A system of rewarding the party faithful and workers with government jobs or contracts
Characteristics of Party Organization
Bosses are at the top and the employees are at various lower levels. There is no central power with a direct chain of command.
A local unit of a political party's organization, consisting on or district within a city
A political district within a city, such as a block or a neighborhood, or a rural portion of a country; the smallest voting district at the local level.
A group of individuals who organize to win elections, operate the government, and determine policy.
Decried factions and parties, defined institutions such as presidency and Congress
Party cooperation since 1960
The 1960s saw a high level of cooperation between parties. Coalitions formed between members of different parties and Southern Democrats were often conservative. This relationship started to change in the 1968 election.
Among voters, a growing detachment from both major politial parties.
The migration between states or countries and the result could tip a state from one party to another. Democrats believe this will help their party in the future.
A process in which the popular support for and relative strength of the parties shift and the parties shift and the parties are reestablished with different coalitions of supporters
Stood for national unity and limited presidential power; essentially a reorganized version of the National Republican Party.
Appealed to small farmers and growing class of urbanized workers. Emerged when Andrew Jackson ran against the nominee of the National Republican Party, John Quincy Adams.
Appealed to farmers; wanted to create inflation to help debtors pay off their obligations
Formed by dissident southern Democrats in 1948 to promote segregation and states rights.
One of the longest serving senators in U.S. history who was a prominent states rights and segregation advocate. Ran for presidency in 1948.
A preliminary election held for the purpose of choosing a party's final candidate.
Turnout for a primary
Voter turnout for primaries is lower than it is for general elections.
Voters at a primary
The voters who do go are usually strong supporters of their party. In many states, independents cannot participate in primary elections. Republican primary is very conservative while Democratic primary voters are quite liberal.
The political party that has fewer members in the legislature than the opposing party. They try to influence the majority party and their policies.
The political party that has more members in the legislature than the opposing party.
An alliance of individuals or groups with a variety of interests and opinions who join together to support all or part of the political party's platform.
Self-perpetuation of two party system
Third parties tend to have difficulties competing with the Republicans and Democrats. States require more signatures to run as a third party. A third party mus have 5% of the vote in order to be given federal funds.
in the electoral college of all but two states (Maine and Nebraska) gives all the electoral votes to the winner of the state's popular vote.
Weak parties tend to be abandoned over time because only the candidate with the most votes will the single seat available. In European countries districts are drawn as multimember districts and are represented by multiple elected officials from different parties, according to the proportion of the vote their party receives.
A political system in which two strong and established parties compete for political offices.
In the United States, any party other than one of the two major parties
Formed to promote a particular cause or timely issue
Supports a particular political doctrine or a set of beliefs.
Develop when a split occurs within a major party. Roosevelt's Bull Moose Party was formed when Roosevelt did not receive the Republican Party's nomination.
promote free market capitalism and minimal intervention in people's private lives.
Third party spoiler
Act as a "spoiler" in that they attract enough voters from one party that it is ultimately defeated by the other.
The views of the citizenry about politics, public issues, and public policies; a complex collection of opinion held by many people on issues in the public arena.
The learning process through which most people acquire their political attitudes, opinions, beliefs and knowledge.
Agents of Political Socialization
People and institutions that influence that political views of others. Explains why cultural ideas are the same and why people have the same views as parents.
Economic status and occupation
Poor people favor government assistance, wealth people favor conservative economics.
Public opinion polls
Numerical surveys of the public's opinion on a particular topic at a particular moment.
Group of people selected to represent the population being studied.
A nonscientific poll. no way to ensure that the opinions expressed are representative of the larger population.
Straw poll that did not represent the population
Sample that ensures that each person within the entire population has a chance to be selected.
The difference between what the sample results show and actuality
Poll conducted outside polling stations on election day.
A campaign tactic used to feed false or misleading information to potential voters.
Rational Choice School
Examines utility income. Utility maximizer's. the candidate that brings the greatest gain.
party identification is the primary determinant in predicting how people will vote
based on sociological elements. the way in which people vote.
Rational Voting Calculus
P(B) + D -C P=Probability your vote will be decisive B=Difference between having one candidate vs. another in office D=sense of civic duty C=cost of voting
Importance of emotion
The lack of clear gains and self-interested pay-offs, is due to the fact that many people feel an emotional attachment to the idea of voting itself and its importance to our political culture.
Ratified in 1870, guaranteed suffrage to African American males
The removal of voting rights, through formal (legal) or informal means
A test given to voters to ensure that they could read and write
A fee of several dollars that had to paid before a person could vote; decreased the number of poor people who voted
clause in state law that had effect of restricting the voting rights to those whose ancestors had voted before 1860
Resource Theory of Political Participation
Predicts levels of participation based on access to income and education. more education, more likely to vote.
Voting-age population vs. vote-eligible population
voter turn out from 2004 to present is on the rise. It is often cited much lower than it actually is.
The American voter-psychology of party identification
In recent years there has been a decline to committing to one side, more people labeling themselves as independents.
Educational attainment, income level, age, gender, religion and geographic location.
The difference between the percentage of votes cast for a particular candidate by women and the percentage of voters cast for the same candidate by men.
The center of political spectrum; those who hold moderate political views.
Law making branch of government
Americans relationship with Congress
Always the lowest rating. Nobody likes congress
Significance of the structure and makeup of the House and Senate
The Senate and the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives was supposed to represent the people as a whole, or the majority. The Senate was to represent the states and would protect the interests of small states by giving them the same number of senators (2 per state) as the larger states
The distribution of House seats among the states on the basis of their respective populations.
A geographic area that is served by one member of the House of Representatives.
Number of districts/House members
Requirements of equal representation
If congressional districts are not made up of equal populations, the values of people's votes is not the same.
When the voting power of people in one district is greater than the voting power of citizen's in another district.
"one person, one vote" rule
a rule, or principle, requiring that congressional districts have equal populations so that one person's vote counts as much as anothers vote.
Gerrymandering and the Supreme Court
the drawing of a legislative district's boundaries in such a way as to maximize the influence of a certain group or political party. The supreme court has not ruled against this, and people still do it today.
Arguments for and against racial gerrymandering
Opponents of racial gerrymandering argue that it violates the equal protection clause. People for it use it to empower minorities.
A district where minorities make up the majority of the population.
a representative who tries to serve the broad interests of the entire society and not just the narrow interests of his or her constituents.
a representative who deliberately mirrors the views of the majority of his or her constituents.
Members of Congress must sometimes be highly attentive to the wishes of party leadership, especially on controversial issues.
Requirements to be a House
Must have been a citizen of the US for at least 7 yrs, legal resident of the state you wish to represent, 25 yrs old.
Requirements to be a Senate member
Have been a US citizen for at least 9 yrs, legal resident of the state you wish to represent.
Power of incumbency
Once someone has won a seat in Congress they enjoy several advantages over their opponents. Large network of contracts, donors, and lobbyists. Often have campaign funds that double those of their opponents. Congressional franking privileges- members mail newsletters, etc. to their constituents at taxpayer's expense.Professional staff. Lawmaking power that allows them to benefit their constituents and then run on those achievements in the next election. Access to media
Terms and limits
House of Representatives members serve for 2 years. Senators serve for 6 years. Every two years we hold congressional elections.There is no limit to the number of terms that a member of Congress can serve.
Speaker of the House
the presiding officer in the House of Representatives. The Speaker has traditionally been a longtime member of the majority party and is often the most powerful and influential member of the House. Powers include: Control over what bills get assigned to which committees, Preside over the sessions of the House, recognizing or ignoring members who wish to speak, Votes in the event of a tie, interprets rules, puts questions to a vote, and interprets the outcome of votes
the party leader elected by the majority party in the House or in the Senate
the party leader elected by the minority party in the House or in the Senate
a member of Congress who assists the majority or minority leader in the House or in the Senate in managing the party's legislative preferences.
President of the Senate
The Vice President always fills this position. Not elected member of Senate. Casts vote in the event of a Tie
President pro tempore-Daniel Inouye
Highest-ranking Asian-American in US
A permanent committee in Congress that deals with legislation concerning a particular area such as agriculture or foreign relations.
typically plays a role in determining chairpersons
division of a larger committee that deals with a particular part of the committee's policy area
standing committee in the House that provides special rules governing how particular bills will be considered and debated by the House.
The Senate tradition of unlimited debate undertaken for the purpse of preventing action on a bill
Method of closing debate in the Senate and bringing the matter under consideration. ⅗ of the entire membership must vote for cloture.
Differences between House and Senate
Senate is more prestigious. ¼ of the members and the term is six years vs. two years.
1. Introduction of Legislation
Most bills are proposed by the executive branch, although individual members of Congress or their staffs can come up with ideas for legislation-so, too, can private citizens or lobbying groups. Once the executive branch has developed a bill a 'friendly' senator or representative introduces the bill in Congress. They may be ignored, defeated, or amended.
2. Referral to committees
Leadership in each chamber assign bills to the appropriate committees. The committee may hold public hearings to hear from people who support or oppose a bill. The (sub)committee holds a markup session- a meeting held by a congressional committee or subcommittee to approve, amend, or redraft a bill.
5. Floor Debate
The House and Senate differ in terms of the rules applied to floor debates.
These debates rarely change anyone' mind/vote. The reason they are held includes
Adding transcripts to the legislative history of the bill. This may be used by the courts for later interpretation. Gives the full House or Senate the opportunity to consider amendments to the original version of the bill.
7. Conference Committee
In theory, a conference committee is only supposed to consider only those points in a bill on which the two chambers disagree. In reality the conference committee sometimes makes important changes in the bill or adds new provisions.Once the conference committee members agree on the final compromise bill, a conference report is submitted to each chamber.
8. Presidential Action
On the bill has been approved by both chambers it is submitted to the president for approval.The president has 10 days to decide whether to sign the bill or veto it.
9. Overriding a veto
If the president decides to veto a bill, Congress can still get the bill enacted into law. With a 2/3 majority vote in both chambers, Congress can override the president's veto.
Investigation and oversight
Congress has the authority to investigate the actions of the executive branch, need for legislation, and the actions of its members. Among the most famous results of Congress's investigative function was the Church Committee findings. The Church Report uncovered illegal activity by executive agencies such as the FBI and CIA. Findings included the assassination of foreign leaders, spying on US citizens, and illegal experimentation (Project MKULTRA).
Accuse an official
Powers of impeachment and conviction in House and Senate
Congress has the power to impeach and remove; president, VP & others. Senate has the power to try the official and convict with ⅔ vote.
President appoints ambassadors, justices and others. Nominees appear before appropriate committee. When committee approves the full Senate will vote.
Part of the congressional budgeting process that involves the creation of the legal basis for government programs.
Determining how many dollars will be spent in a given year on particular set of government activities.
Government program (social security) that allows a certain class of people to receive benefits. Operate under open-ended budget, place no limits on how much can be spent.