Major Concepts of Chapter 7-9

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Force Bill

Andrew Jackson; President could use force to get states to pay tariff of 1828

Nullification Doctrine

John C Calhoun; states could decide which acts to follow

Nullification Crisis

South believed in states over federal; declared tariff void

Compromise Tariff of 1833

Henry Clay; Tariff of 1828 would be lowered over a 10 year period until it resembled the tariff of 1818

Whigs

political party to oppose Jackson and his views

Democratic Party

Oldest current political party; led by jefferson, favored states rights, alliance with france, and opposed Hamilton's financial view

Tariff of Abominations

name given to the tariff of 1828 by the South

Spoils System

Jackson's system where he appointed supporters to cabinet positions; 2 year terms

People's President

Andrew Jackson's nickname

Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson's informal cabinet of advisors

Peggy-Eaton Affair

Social scandal where Jackson supported Peggy in remembrance of his wife

Webster-Haynes Debate

Webster said that the states gave up their sovereignty and freedom when they created the fed gov

Jackson's Native American Policy

If they moved to Oklahoma, the land would be theirs forever. If not, they were moved by force.

Bank War

Jackson saw the National bank as seat of aristocrats and vetoed the recharter

Pet banks

Jackson's banks to whom he invested money in his war with the national bank

National Road

First Congressional highway funded by the government

Panic of 1819

Caused by sudden tightening of credit by banks

Convention of 1818

Set the border between US and Canada and 39th parallel

Adams-Onis Treaty

Spain gives up all land claims in Florida to US

Industrial Revolution Inventions

Cotton Gin, Interchangeable rifle parts, Conestoga wagons, yankee clipper ships, steamboat

Missouri Compromise

Maine enters as free, Missouri enters as slave, no slavery above 39th parallel, proposed by Henry Clay

Monroe Doctrine

American foreign policy opposing foreign interference with North America

Era of Good Feeling

period from 1818 to 1823 where the country enjoyed economic, politic, and social prosperity

Corrupt Bargain

Jackson's term for when Adams appointed Clay Secretary of State in return for his support in the Election of 1824

National Republicans

Supporters of strong central government and national bank

American System

protective tariff, improved infrastructure, recharter of National Bank

Rush Bagot Agreement

limited naval power on the Great Lakes between US and Canada

Erie Canal

Encouraged by Dewitt Clinton; connected the North and West in commerce

Protective Tariffs

Tax on imported goods to US; favored by North because it protected local merchants; hated by South because it indirectly hurt their industry with UK

War of 1812

War started by UK and French impressment, disrespect of US rights, Milan Act, Berlin Act, Chesapeake-Leopard Affair and other causes.

Treaty of Ghent

Ended War of 1812; impressment was never even adressed

Tecumseh

Indian leader who tried to unite the tribes to oppose white expansion; was involved with UK in War of 1812

Second Great Awakening

Series of religious revivals due to the belief of Deism; Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian religions established themselves

Benevolent Empire

campaign of Christian reforms inspired by their ideals in 1820

War Hawks

Vehement supporters of the War of 1812; John C Calhoun, Henry Clay

Jeffersonian Democracy

phrase used to describe political ideas related to an agrarian society of white males

Republican Motherhood

women had responsibility to cultivate the children

virtuous citizen

citizens that actively participate in their country

Louisiana purchase

Jefferson was afraid Napoleon would take back his offer

Marbury vs Madison

case where Supreme court first asserted the power of the judicial branch

Embargo Act

Prevent US trade with all foreign countries

Non-Intercourse Act

Prevent US trade with UK and France

Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

US ship Chesapeake refused UK inspection and UK ship Leopard fired; one of the causes of the War of 1812

Hartford Convention

Meeting of New England states to propose secession

Battle of New Orleans

Andrew Jackson made his name here; showed that the US could defend itself

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