What is the ancient rock land mass that was the first part of the North American continent to emerge above sea level?
What is a person of mixed European and Indian ancestry called?
What was the disease originating in the Americas that was transmitted to Europeans after 1492?
Who was the powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors?
Who were the Indian people of the Rio Grande Valley who were cruelly oppressed by the Spanish conquerors?
Who was the Italian-born navigator sent by the English to explore the North American coast in 1498?
What was the Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of missions in California?
What is a large scale agricultural enterprise growing commerical crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor?
Who was the legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy?
What is the term for a Spanish conqueror?
What were the small vessels with high decks and triangular sails used by the Spanish and Portuguese to engage in ocean going voyages?
Treaty of Tordesillas
What was the treaty that secured Spanish title to lands in the Americas by dividing them with Portugal?
What was the important Mississippian mound-building culture site, near present East St. Louis, Illinois?
What was the staple crop that formed the economic foundation of Indian civilizations?
Who was dispatched by the French to explore the eastern North American sea board in 1524 discovering the mouth to what would one day become New York harbor?
What was the belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good called?
Who was the Spanish conqueror who defeated the Aztecs by claiming he was god whose return had been predicted?
Ponce de Leon
What Spanish explorer was killed in Florida seeking gold and slaves and not the mythical fountain of youth?
What was the agricultural system employed by North American Indians in which corn, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields?
What was the transfer of goods, crops and diseases between the Old World and New World societies?
What was the Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress an Indian religion?
What Spanish conqueror sought fabled cities of gold, but was the first European to discover the Grand Canyon?
What is the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory, established in 1565?
Who explored the St. Lawrence River for France in 1534?
Ferdinand and Isabella
Who were the Spanish monarchs who were the financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World?
Who was the Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca of Peru in 1532?
What is the name for the event when the Aztecs attacked Cortez and drove the Spanish from Tenochtitlan?
What Spanish conqueror was the first European to cross the Mississippi River and died of fever in 1542?
Who was the Italian explorer whose return from China in 1295 inspired other explorers?
What explorer for Spain was the first to lay eyes on the Pacific Ocean while in the Americas?
What European country established the slave trade for its sugar islands off the coast of Africa?
What is the economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets?
Aragon and Castille
What two kingdoms unified to lead to a united Spain and the repulse of the Moors?
Robert de La Salle
Who made French claims to the Mississippi River Valley in the 1680s?
What disease ravage the native population of the Americas producing catastrophic deaths?
What Spanish sailor's ships successfully circumnavigated the globe in 1522?
Bartolome de Las Casas
Who was the Spanish priest and former slave trader who authored the Destruction of the Indies as a condemnation of Spanish brutal treatment of the Native Americans?
What was the system that allowed the Spanish government to give Native Americans to colonists in return for the promise to "Christianize" them?
Battle of Acoma
What was fought between the Spanish under Don Juan de Onate and the Pueblo Indians in present day New Mexico, and the Spanish severed a foot of every survivor?
Who was the female Indian slave who taught Cortez the legend of Quetzcoatal and served as an interpreter?
Who established the first Franciscan mission in California at San Diego in 1769?
What was the colony founded by Sir Walter Raleigh that mysteriously disappeared in the 1580s?
What was the large flotilla of naval invaders that were defeated by English "sea dogs" in 1588?
What was the forerunner of the modern corporation that enabled investors to pool financial capital for colonial ventures?
What was the name of the two wars fought in 1614 and 1644, between the English in Jamestown and the nearby Indian leader?
Barbados slave codes
What was the harsh system of laws governing African labor officially adopted by South Carolina in 1696?
Who are penniless people obligated to forced labor for a fixed number of years, often in exchange for passage to the New World or other benefits?
What was the powerful Indian alliance of New York and the Great Lakes area comprised of several peoples?
Who was the philanthropic soldier-statesman who founded the Georgia colony?
Who was the leader who rescued the Jamestown colonists from the "starving time" by instituting a disciplined work requirement?
Who was the Jamestown leader who developed a method of raising and curing tobacco that transformed it into a viable economic venture?
Act of Toleration
What legislation was passed in Maryland in 1649 that extended religious freedom to its Catholic settlers?
De La Warr
Who was the harsh military governor of Virginia who employed "Irish tactics" against the Indians?
House of Burgesses
What representative assembly was created in 1619 in Virginia and is the oldest continual governing body in North America?
What colony was called "a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit" due to the lower class of people that settled there?
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
Who was the Catholic aristocrat who sought to build a sanctuary for Catholics in Maryland?
What was the medieval law that stated only eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates?
What was the period in England when landowners forced tenant farmers off their land in order to raise livestock heavily contributing to urbanization?
Virginia Company of London
What was the name of the group that received a charter from King James I in 1606 and formed the first permanent English settlement in the New World?
What Native American was the founder of the Longhouse religion in 1799?
What Native American woman served as ambassador between the Indians of the Chesapeake and the Jamestown settlers and ultimately married an Englishman and converted to Christianity?
Who were radical Calvinists who considered the Church of England so corrupt that they broke with it and formed their own independent churches?
What was the shipboard agreement by the Pilgrim Fathers to establish a body politic and submit to majority rule?
What was the Puritan Church in America called?
Anne Hutchinson, antinomianism
Two-part Who was the radical woman preacher who claimed that the truly saved need not obey human or divine law and what is the name of this doctrine?
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
What is considered the first constitution or structure of government in the American colonies?
Metacom (King Philip)
Who was the Wampanoag Chieftain who waged an unsuccessful war against New England in 1675?
New England Confederation
What was the experimental union of four northern colonies in defense against Indians called?
Which European country first settled the territory which would ultimately become New York City?
Who were English Calvinists who sought a thorough cleansing from within the Church of England?
What was the conflict in 1637 when the English slaughtered the natives of the Connecticut Mystic River Valley?
Who was the governor of Massachusetts Bay who claimed it was a holy "city upon a hill"?
Who was the radical Massachusetts exile who founded the most tolerant New England colony?
What was the religious group who were persecuted in Massachusetts and New York but not in Pennsylvania?
What was the representative assembly of Massachusetts Bay?
Who was the director general of New Netherland who ultimately lost the colony to the English?
Who was the Wampanoag chieftain who befriended the English colonists of Plymouth?
elect or visible saints
Two-part Give the names that true members of the Puritan church were known as.
What were the series of trade regulations placed on the English colonists that limited exports and imports beginning in 1651?
Dutch West India Company
What was the organization that established the colony of New Netherlands?
Sir Edmund Andros
Who was the autocratic governor of the Dominion of New England who was removed after the Glorious Revolution in England?
Who was the thirty time governor of the Plymouth colony who authored the memoir Of Plymouth Plantation?
What was the uprising in Virginia in 1676 that featured landless farmers against Indians and the colonial government?
Who are immigrants who received passage to America in exchange for a fixed term of labor?
What was Maryland and Virginia's system of granting land to anyone who provided trans-Atlantic passage for laborers?
What was the formula devised by Puritan ministers in 1662 to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion?
Salem witchcraft trials
What was the late seventeenth century judicial event that inflamed popular feelings, led to the deaths of twenty people, and weakened the Puritan clergy's prestige?
What was the uprising in New York from 1689-1691 between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants?
What is the collective term for the clans like the Fitzhughs, Washingtons, and Lees who made up the majority of the Virginia House of Burgesses?
What is the name of the slave rebellion that occurred in South Carolina in 1739?
Royal African Company
What was the English company that lost its monopoly on the slave trade in 1698?
What was the trans-Atlantic route used by slave traders to deliver Africans to the Western Hemisphere?
What was the name of the African American dialect that blended English with Yoruba, Ibo and Hausa?
Who was the colonial governor during the uprising in Virginia in 1676 that featured landless farmers against Indians and the colonial government?
What was the term for the sermons preached by New England pastors that warned their followers of the dangers of deviating from God's plan for them?
What was the primary occupation of most seventeenth-century Americans?
What was the name of the West African religious rite, retained by African Americans, in which participants actively responded to exhortations from the preacher?
William and Mary
What is the name of the oldest college in the South founded in 1793?
What is the name of the oldest college in America, originally based on the Puritan commitment to an educated ministry?
In what city did a slave rebellion in 1712 result in 33 deaths?
What is another term for slavery as property ownership?
New England town hall meeting
What did Thomas Jefferson observe was "the best school of political liberty the world ever saw"?
In 1775 what was America's most populous city?
Besides Africans what were the other two largest non-English ethnic groups in colonial America?
What was the 1764 uprising in Pennsylvania that resulted from the oligarchy's leniency towards the Native Americans?
What was the rebellious movement of Scots-Irish frontiersman in the southern colonies that included future President Andrew Jackson?
What was the most honored of professions of colonial America?
Who was the French settler who saw in America a "strange mixture of blood, which you will find in no other country"?
Two part With what occupation was approximately 90% off Americans involved in the colonial period and what was America's most important single manufacturing activity?
What is the term for such valued supplies as tar, pitch, rosin and turpentine, highly prized by the British?
What was the term for the Trans-Atlantic mercantile routes that included Africa, the Americas, and Europe?
What was the term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized?
What British legislation was passed in 1733 in an attempt to prevent the American colonists from trading with the French West Indies?
What venues served as America's best source of amusement, social mixing, and sources of information in the colonial era?
What was the religious doctrine that preached that individual free will determined salvation, thus threatening the Congregational Church?
Who was the New England minister whose sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" became an American classic?
Who was the itinerant English evangelist who drew enormous crowds to hear his sermons?
What were ministers called who promoted religious revival and an emotional religious experience?
What was the term for the tax-supported condition of Congregational and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics?
Harvard, William and Mary
Two-part What college was the first founded in America in 1636 in Massachusetts and which college was founded in Virginia in 1693 to better educate future ministers?
What was the spectacular, emotional religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s?
What was the case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel?
Poor Richard's Almanack
What was Benjamin Franklin's popular collection of information, parables, and advice?
Trumbull, Peale, West, and Copley
Who were four of the colonial painters who studied and worked in Britain and are considered the great American colonial portrait painters?
What is the architectural style that heavily influenced the building of colonial Williamsburg?
Who was the former slave who became a poet at an early age whose work was published as Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral?
By 1775 eight of the thirteen colonies were ________________ colonies, while three were __________________, meaning under the leadership of a group of owners, and two were self-governing colonies.
Who was the Father of New France, who established a crucial alliance with the Huron Indians?
coureurs de bois
What is the term for the French fur trappers of the era?
What was the French Catholic religious order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians?
What became the term for the period of time in which Parliament failed to enforce the laws placed on the colonies?
Who were French Protestants, who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France?
Two-part Who were the French residents of Nova Scotia that were uprooted by the British in 1755 and scattered as far south as Louisiana and what did their descendants become known as?
What was the unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly led to success by his eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry?
Proclamation of 1763
What was the British document that was an attempt to stop colonial expansion west of the Appalachians?
Who was the Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion?
Who was the splendid British orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in North America?
Ohio River Valley
What was the territory that was the site of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists?
French and Indian War, Seven Years' War
What did Americans call the conflict that lasted in the American colonies from 1754-1763 and what was it known as in Europe?
What is the term for well trained, uniformed and disciplined soldiers and what is the term for colonial voluteers who trained periodically and wore "buckskins"?
George Washington, Ft. Necessity
What American colonel initiated the French and Indian War in the vicinity of the French fort, Ft. Duquesne and what was the name of his hastily erected fortification that he was forced to surrender?
Who was the French explorer who founded Detroit in 1701?
Who was the French explorer who claimed the Mississippi Valley to the Gulf of Mexico for France?
What French fort was returned to France under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended King George's War (War of Austrian Succession) in 1748?
Who was the British general killed outside of Ft. Duquesne in 1755 after blundering though the frontier?
Who was the British commander who captured Quebec on the Plains of Abraham and who was the French general he defeated?
Treaty of Paris
What was the name of the agreement that ended the French and Indian War in 1763?
Who were British political commentators who feared the threat to liberty of the arbitrary use of power by the monarch?
What was the economic system that stated a nation's strength came from its economic wellbeing and thus manipulated colonies to achieve these goals?
Sugar Act (1764)
What was the first law passed for raising tax revenue for Britain in the colonies?
What was the collective name of the legislation passed in 1767 that imposed duties on glass, lead, paper, paint and tea?
Who was the runaway mulatto who led the colonists against the British during the Boston Massacre and was killed?
committees of correspondence
What was organized by Samuel Adams in Massachusetts as a response to an increased presence of British officials to spread the spirit of resistance through letters?
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts
What was the name the colonists gave to legislation passed by Parliament to chastise Boston for the Boston Tea Party?
Who was the British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act?
What was the set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain?
What was the legislation that required the colonists to feed and shelter British troops but was summarily ignored?
What were the hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent?
Who was the nineteen year old French major general in the Revolutionary Army who helped secure French aid for the cause?
What was the British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members?
Who was the wealthy president of the Continental Congress and so-called "King of Smugglers"?
What was the effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable?
Baron von Steuben
Who was the Prussian army officer who helped train the Continental Army into fighting readiness at Valley Forge?
Boston Tea Party
What was the event organized by disguised "Indians" in 1773 to sabotage British support of a British East India Company monopoly?
What were German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries called?
What was the effective organization created by the First Continental Congress in 1774 to provide a total boycott of all British goods?
What were the rapidly mobilizing colonial militia whose refusal to disperse sparked the first shots of the Revolution?
Who was the British minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes in 1767 nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain?
Who was the British Prime Minister who rescinded the taxes on lead, paper, and other goods but allowed a duty to remain on tea ultimately leading to the Boston Tea Party?
Stamp Act Congress
What was a gathering of nine American colonies in 1765 to protest unfair taxation by the British?
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
What were the name of the patriotic groups during the 1760s who enforced opposition to the British government's taxation policies?
What event occured in 1770 under the leadership of Captain Thomas Preston when a group of American protesters were killed in New England?
What was the name of the law passed by Britain in 1774 that allowed French people under British rule to practice Catholicism and altered the boundaries of French inhabited Canada?
Lexington and Concord
What was the sites of the "shot heard round the world" that inaugurated war with Britain in 1775?
Who was the influential Virginian whose address to the Second Virginia Convention at St. John's Church in Richmond in 1775 concludes with "Give me liberty or give me death."?
selecting George Washington as commander of the Continental Army
What does the American Pageant consider to be the most important single action of the Second Continental Congress in 1775?
Name the first major battle of the American Revolution that was fought on the outskirts of Boston and was a pyrrhic victory for the British.
What American general was the hero of Fort Ticonderoga but suffered terribly in a failed attack on Quebec and in 1780 attempted to sell West Point to the British?
Who was the British immigrant who authored the pamphlet, Common Sense?
Richard Henry Lee
Name the Virginian who introduced the resolution of independence in the Continental Congress.
Declaration of Independence
What American document features the phrase, "We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights..."?
Battle of Long Island
At what battle were American troops routed in the fall of 1776 and forced to retreat into Pennsylvania?
Battle of Saratoga
At what turning point battle did General Burgoyne surrender his entire army in October, 1777?
What American served as the ambassador to France during the American Revolution?
Catherine the Great
What monarch organized the Armed Neutrality against the British?
What American general distinguished himself at the battles of Cowpens and Guilford Courthouse?
Who was the Mohawk chief who allied his people with the British against the colonists?
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
What was the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation?
George Rogers Clark
What American frontiersman seized a series of Ohio River forts during the American Revolution?
Battle of Yorktown
What was the last major battle of the American Revolution?
Treaty of Paris
What agreement formally ended the American Revolution and recognized American independence?
Against what British monarch was the American Revolution fought?
Olive Branch Petition
What was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in July 1775 professing loyalty to the British crown amidst hostilities by the American colonists?
Who was the famous Virginian who authored the Declaration of Indpendence?
What were the two terms for American colonists who remained loyal to Britain?
What were Washington's two successul raids during the New Jersey campaign in the winter of 1776-1777 when he famously crossed the Delaware River?
Where did Washigton and his men camp in the cruel winter of 1777-1778?
John Paul Jones
Who was America's first great naval hero, who as commander of the Bonhomme Richard famously said when facing the Serapis, "I have not yet begun to fight"?
What is the term for a legally government sanctioned pirate?
Who was the British general whose surrender in 1781 spelled defeat for the British in the American Revolution?
Rochambeau, de Grasse
Respectively what French officer commanded French forces in the American Revolution and who was the French naval commander?
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, Thomas Jefferson
Two-part What officially separated church and state in Virginia and who was its author?
What is the belief that democracy depends on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good?
What was the term for the elevated position women held in early America as keeper's of the nation's conscience?
What innovation was created by Massachusetts when devising their new state constitution?
Society of the Cincinnati
What was the exclusive hereditary order created by the Continental Army officers after the American Revolution?
What group founded the world's first antislavery society in 1775?
What is the term for laws that are superior to the transient whims of ordinary legislation?
Articles of Confederation
What was the first written constitution for the United States?
Land Ordinance of 1785
What was the legislation that provided for the sale of the Old Northwest and division of townships?
Dey of Algiers
Who was the North African pirate who preyed on American shipping in the Mediterranean in the 1780s?
Who led a Massachusetts uprising in 1786 in demands for better treatment of poor farmers?
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
What legislation abolished slavery in the territory north of the Ohio River and provided for territories to become co-equal states with the original thirteen states?
no power to enforce taxes, no power to regulate commerce
What were the two most crippling weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
Who served as chairman of the Constitutional Convention?
What was the name of the agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention for considering slavery in terms of population for representation?
The Federalist Papers
What was the series of essays penned by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay to make a convincing argument in favor of ratifying the US Constitution?
Who served as secretary of the Constitutional Convention and is often called the "father of the Constitution"?
Who authored the Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)?
Who introduced the Virginia Plan (large-states) at the Consitutional Convention?
Who introduced the New Jersey (small states) Plan at the Constitutional Convention?
Secretary of State, Jefferson, Secretary of Treasury, Hamilton, Secretary of War, Knox
List the first three cabinet positions and who served in them under George Washington.
Which amendment reserves all rights not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the Constitution to the states or the people?
Judiciary Act of 1789
Through what method did the first Congress create an effective court system?
What expression meant the federal government would pay off the outstanding debt of the individual states?
What was the name of the uprising that occurred in Pennsylvania in 1794 over an unpopular excise tax?
Federalist- Hamilton, Democrat-Republican Jefferson
What were the two earliest American parties and who were the philosophical founders of each party?
Reign of Terror
What event caused moderates in the United States to turn against the French Revolution?
What was the message issued by Washington in 1793 that urged Americans to stay impartial and aloof from the French Revolutionary wars with the British?
What was the document signed in 1794 whose terms favoring Britain outraged Jeffersonian Republicans?
What was the American agreement that secured American navigation rights on the Mississippi and disputed territory near Florida?
What was the event when the French demanded a large bribe of American ambassadors under President Adams?
Convention of 1800
What was the agreement that produced an end to the Quasi-War or undeclared war with France under President Adams?
Alien and Sedition Acts
What were the harsh and probably unconstitutional laws aimed at radical immigrants and Jeffersonian writers passed by the Federalists?
What is the principle that America was formed by thirteen separate states who entered into an agreement?
In order who authored the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions?
What principle was established by the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions that had far-reaching consequences?