Microscopic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems.
Small, drifting animals that eat phytoplankton.
Rivalry among competitors.
Theoretical niche occupied in the absence of any competing species.
The environmental area an organism occupies in light of competition and other pressures.
The reduction in competition for environmental resources, such as food, that occurs among coexisting species as a result of each species' niche differing from the others in one or more ways.
When one organism kills and eats another organism.
When an organism harms but does not kill its host.
Strategy for prey, conspicuous coloration or markings of an animal serving to warn off predators.
Those who only eat plants.
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit.
An association between two or more species.
One participant is harmed, and the other is unaffected.
A relationship between two species in which one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
All the organisms living in an area.
Levels in the feeding structure of organisms.
Convert the sun's solar energy into food.
Animal that gets food from secondary consumers.
Organisms that eat dead and decaying organic matter.
A diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.
A diagram which shows the flow of energy from organism to organism.
A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem.
An indirect interaction chain where the effects of a top predator in a food web are evident at multiple lower trophic levels.
Gradual change in organisms that occurs when the environment changes.
Ecological succession in a bare area that has never been occupied by a community of organisms.
Sequence of changes, usually occuring after intense disruption, that brings a community towards its climax state.
The first species to arrive in an area.
A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species overtime.
Species that enter new ecosystems and multiply, harming native species and their habitats.
The process of altering a site or area with the objective of reestablishing indigenous, historical ecosystems.
A branch of ecology that involves the restoring of degraded or altered ecosystems back to their natural state.
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities.
Visual representation of the average monthly temp. and precipitation for a region.
Temperate Deciduous Forest
An ecosystem that has 4 distinct seasons but rarely has snow cover all winter.
Biome characterized by deep, nutrient soil that supports many grass species.
A biome consisting of tall coniferous trees, and is characterized by a mild, cool, and wet climate, with lower species diversity.
Biome in which the temperature stays warm and rain falls year round.
Tropical Dry Forest
Tropical areas, warm all year around, rain is less overall and highly seasonal.
A dry grassland dotted with trees and bushes.
A very dry environment where little rain falls.
A treeless area, between the ice cap and the tree line of arctic regions, where the subsoil is permanently frozen.
Along northern edge of the temperate zone are dense evergreen forests of coniferous trees.
A biome dominated by spiny evergreen shrubs adapted to periodic drought and fires.