-2 step process
-physical change cause by wrapping hair on perm rods
-chemical change caused by permanent waving solution and the neutralizer
Most common type of perm rod, produce tighter curl in center, looser on end
perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area
soft bender rods
Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length. These soft foam rods have a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape.
Tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.
end wraps; absorbant papers used to control the end
double flat wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under,and one is placed over, the strand
single flat wrap
perm wrap similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped
perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping;one rod is normally placed on each base section.
the position of a permanent wave rod in relation to its base section
on base placement
Hair is wrapped 45 degree beyond perpendicular to its base section
half off base placement
wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its base section.
off base placement
wrapped at a 45 degree angle BELOW perpendicular to its base section
ANGLE AT WHICH THE ROD IS POSITIONED ON THE HEAD
croquignole perm wrap
wrapped from the ends to the scalp and overlapping concentrated layers
spiral perm wrap
Wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, like the grip on a tennis racket.
double rod wrap
also known as the piggy back wrap in which the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft
a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasent oder. the most common reducing agent in permanet wave solution
a alkaline and is the active ingredent or reducing agent in alkiline permanets
( cold waves ) have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ATG as the reducing agent and process at room temperature wihout the additon of heat
the main active ingedient in true acid and acid balance waving solution
True acid waves
have a pH level between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process
acid balanced wave
which is permanet waves that have a 7.0 ie neutral pH
creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the chemical solution and speeds up the processing