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97. Which of the following is a measure of relative loudness?
a. Pitch
b. Frequency
c. Decibel
d. jnd

c; Easy

98. Frequency is to amplitude as ______ is to _______.
a. loudness; pitch
b. loudness; hue
c. pitch: hue
d. pitch; loudness

d; Moderate

99. In vision, the amplitude of a light wave relates to our perception of the brightness of a stimulus. To which perceptual dimension might the amplitude of a sound wave correspond in hearing?
a. loudness
b. pitch
c. timbre
d. none of these

a; Moderate

100. People can detect sounds ranging in frequency from ________ to ________.
a. 20 dB - 20,000 dB
b. 50 dB - 50,000 dB
c. 20 Hz - 20,000 Hz
d. 50 Hz - 20,000 Hz

c; Difficult

101. Which of the following ear structures is correctly paired with its description?
a. tympanic membrane - membrane covering opening of cochlea
b. oval window - external, visible part of the ear
c. pinna - fluid-filled structure in the inner ear
d. ossicles - bones of the middle ear

d; Difficult

102. Which of the following describes the tympanic membrane?
a. The membrane at the end of the ear
b. The external, visible part of the ear
c. The fluid-filled structure in the inner ear
d. The ear drum

a; Easy

103. Which of the following describes the ossicles?
a. The membranes at the end of the ear
b. The fluid-filled structures in the inner ear that monitor our bodily positions
c. The base of the auditory nerve
d. The inner part of the ear drum

b; Easy

104. Which of the following describes the cochlea?
a. The membrane at the end of the ear
b. The external, visible part of the ear
c. The base of the auditory nerve
d. A snail-shaped tube that contains the cilia

d; Easy

105. The bones of the middle ear include each of the following EXCEPT:
a. hammer
b. anvil
c. saddle
d. stirrup

c; Difficult

106. The receptor cells for hearing are located in the:
a. eardrum
b. ossicles
c. auditory canal
d. cochlea

d; Moderate

107. Making an analogy between hearing and vision, the auditory hair cells in the ________ are similar to the ________ in the __________.
a. cochlea; rods and cones; retina
b. cochlea; ganglion cells; retina
c. eardrum; rods and cones; cornea
d. eardrum; ganglion cells; retina

a; Moderate

108. Which of the following sequences correctly reflects the order of events in which sound waves are converted into neural impulses in the ear, from first to last?
a. movement of fluid in cochlea → vibration of oval window → bending of hair cells
b. bending of hair cells → movement of fluid in cochlea → vibration of oval window
c. vibration of oval window → bending of hair cells → movement of fluid in cochlea
d. vibration of oval window → movement of fluid in cochlea → bending of hair cells

d; Difficult

109. Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges the structures of the inner ear from the largest and most inclusive to the smallest and most specific?
a. cochlea → cilia → hair cells
b. cochlea → hair cells → cilia
c. cilia→ hair cells → cochlea
d. cilia → cochlea → hair cells

b; Difficult

110. Frequency theory attempts to explain the perception of _________. Place theory attempts to explain the perception of _________.
a. loudness; loudness as well
b. loudness; pitch
c. both pitch and loudness; pitch
d. pitch; pitch as well

d; Moderate

111. To what extent can the frequency and place theories explain our perception of high- and low-pitched sounds?
a. Frequency theory has difficulty explaining our perception of low-pitched sounds.
b. Both the frequency and the place theory have difficulty explaining our perception of low-pitched sounds.
c. Frequency theory has difficulty explaining our perception of high-pitched sounds.
d. Place theory has difficulty explaining our perception of high-pitched sounds.

c; Difficult

112. Which figure best approximates the number of Americans who suffer from some type of hearing impairment?
a. 10 million
b. 15 million
c. 25 million
d. 30 million

d; Difficult

113. Mr. Arthur's middle ear bones are fused, reflecting a birth defect. Mrs. Benitez is 70 years old and has lost nearly 50% of her cilia. Which type of hearing loss is each of these individuals probably experiencing?
a. Mr. Arthur is experiencing conductive hearing loss. Mrs. Benitez is experiencing sensorineural hearing loss.
b. Mr. Arthur is experiencing sensorineural hearing loss. Mrs. Benitez is experiencing conductive hearing loss.
c. Both Mr. Arthur and Mrs. Benitez are experiencing conductive hearing loss.
d. Both Mr. Arthur and Mrs. Benitez are experiencing sensorineural hearing loss.

a; Difficult

114. On average, an individual will have lost ______% of her cilia by the time she is 65.
a. 15
b. 25
c. 35
d. 40

d; Moderate

115. Repeated exposure to sounds over _______ dB can damage one's hearing; even infrequent exposure to sounds over _________ dB can produce hearing loss.
a. 65; 130
b. 85; 130
c. 85; 100
d. 65; 85

b; Difficult

116. Which statement best expresses the effectiveness of cochlear implants in countering hearing loss?
a. They are effective in almost all cases of conductive hearing loss.
b. They can counteract conductive hearing loss, as long as the eardrum is intact.
c. They are effective in almost all cases of sensorineural hearing loss.
d. They can counteract sensorineural hearing loss, as long as the auditory nerve is intact.

d; Difficult

117. Which of the following is used to help people with sensorineural hearing loss?
a. Pinna replacement therapy
b. Cochlear implants
c. Cilia transplants
d. Auditory canal surgery

b; Easy

118. Herz is to decibel as frequency is to amplitude.

T; Moderate

119. The receptor cells for hearing are located in the ossicles.

F; Easy

120. Conductive hearing loss reflects damage to the auditory nerve or the cilia.

F; Moderate

121. Jen affixes an earring to her earlobe. She is attaching the jewelry to part of her _______.

pinna; Moderate

122. The __________ theory of pitch perception is unable to explain our perception of high-pitched sounds.

frequency; Moderate

123. Keisha works in a noisy factory. Damage to her cilia may eventually lead to _________ hearing loss.

sensorineural; Moderate

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