Anatomy, Muscles, origin and insertion

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Platysma

origin: Acromion
insertion: Mandible
Action: Opens the jaw

Masseter

(21)
origin: Zygomatic
insertion: Ramus of the mandible
action: Closes the jaw

Rectus abdominis

(8)
origin: Pubis
insertion: ribs 5-7
action: Flexes the vertebral column

Latissimus dorsi

(2)
origin: Lower thoracic vertebra and lumbar vertebra
insertion: Lesser tubercle
action: Extends the vertebral column.

Biceps brachii

(10)
origin: Coracoid process
insertion: Radius
action: Flexes the antebrachium

Triceps Brachii

(8)
origin: Humerus
insertion: Olecranon
action: Extends the antebrachium

Biceps femoris

(8)
origin: Ischial tuberosity
insertion: Tibial condyle
action: Flexes the lower leg

Rectus femoris

(10)
origin: Acetabular rim
insertion: Tibial tuberosity
action: Extends the lower leg

Deltoid

(9)
origin: Acromion
insertion: Deltoid tuberosity
action: Abducts the humerus

Pectoralis major

(20)
origin: Ribs 2-6 and body of the sternum
insertion: Greater tubercle
action: Adducts the humerus medially and anteriorly

Gastrocnemius

(20 & 21)
origin: femoral condyles
insertion: calcaneus
action: Extends the foot

Tibialis anterior

(11)
origin: Lateral condyle of the tibia
insertion: Metatarsal 1
action: Flexes the foot

Gracilis

(9)
origin: Pubis
insertion: Medial side of tibia
action: Adducts entire leg

Gluteus medius

(2-cut)
origin: Iliac crest
insertion: Greater trochanter
action: abducts entire leg

origin

Stationary bony structure (anchor) that is point of attachment for muscle. (may become insertion point depending on action)

Insertion

Moveable bone that is point of attachment for muscle. (may become origin point depending on action)

Antagonistic muscles

One muscle flexes, pulls, a body part into a position, an antagonistic muscle flexes, pulls, to return the body part to it's original position.

ex: Biceps brachii raises arm, Triceps brachii lowers arm.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Inflammation of the tendon sheath, associated with the flexors of the hand and fingers. Swelling puts pressure on the median nerve and creates pain.

Strain

Muscle tear. (sprain is torn or stretched ligament)

Muscular Dystrophy

Progressive muscle weakness. Could lead to respiratory paralysis.

Myasthenia Gravis

Muscular weakness due to a malfunction of the immune system. The immune system seems to attack the neuromuscular junctions. The first symptom is usually ptosis (drooping eyelids). Weakness in the jaw muscle will continue to the point where the patient cannot move their jaw.

Fibromyalgia

Inflammation of the muscles and joints. Pain but no muscle weakness. Stems from unknown causes...possibly a virus.

Hamstrings

Biceps femoris (8)
Semitendinosus (12)
Semimembranosus (14)

These muscles make up...?

Quadriceps

Rectus femoris (10)
Vastus medialis (12)
vastus lateralis (7)
vastus intermedius (not visible-lies behind the rectus femoris)

These muscles make up...?

Rotator cuff

These muscles make up the...?
Supraspinatus (1)
Infraspinatus (2)
Teres minor (3)
Subscapularis (4)

Muscles that adduct the humerus

Teres major (not visible)
latissimus dorsi (8)
pectoralis major (6)

These muscles do what?

Muscles that open the mouth

These muscles do what?
Digastric (8 & 30)
Platysma (removed to show interior muscles)

Muscles that adduct the thigh

Pectineus (5)
Adductor longus (6)
Gracilis (9)
Adductor magnus (not visible in anterior view)

These muscles do what?

Muscles that abduct the thigh

Gluteus medius (12)
Tensor fasciae latae (15)

These muscles do what?

Antagonistic to the biceps femoris

Rectus femoris (10)
Vastus Medialis (12)
Vastus lateralis (7)
Vastus Intermedius (not visible-lies behind the rectus femoris)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?

Antagonistic to the gacilis

Gluteus medius (12)
Tensor fasciae latae (15)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?

Antagonistic to the palmaris longus

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (4)
Extensor digitorum (11)
Extensor Carpi Radialis (12 & 13)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?

Antagonistic to the deltoid (2)

Teres major (5)
Latissimus dorsi (19)
Pectoralis major (not visible-seen in the anterior view)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?

skeletal muscles

voluntary
striated
fastest reacting
neurogenic
multi-nucleated
most attached to bone

Periosteum

membrane surrounding bones.
Membrane surrounding muscle attaches to membrane surrounding bone

Shin splint

pull periosteum away from bone.

Epimysium

(A)
Membrane surrounding muscle, "muscle sheath", made of connective tissue

Muscle fascicles

(B)
smaller units of muscle tissue

perimysium

(C)
Surrounds each fasciculus.
Contains many muscle fibers (D)

Endomysium

(A)
surrounds each muscle cell.

Antagonistic to masseter (2)

(8 & 30)
Gastric (antagonistic to...?)

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