Chapter 4 Sections 3 and 4

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8 Organelles of Animal Cells

1. Plasma membrane
2. Nucleus
3. Mitochondria
4. Ribosomes
5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
6. Golgi Apparatus
7. Vesicles
8. Cytoskeleton

3 types of Organelles in Plant Cells

1. Cell Wall
2. Central Vacuole
3. Plastids

Plasma Mebrane

Phospholipid Bilayer structure
Function: Protection/Seperation and Regulation of the flow of materials in/out

Membrane Lipids

The cell membrane of Eukaryotes contain lipids called sterols, between the tails of the phospholipids

Membrane Proteins

Intergal Proteins- embedded withing the bilayer
ex Surface markers, receptors, Transporters
Peripheral proteins- lie only on one side of the membrane and are not embedded ( often attached to carbohydrates as labels

Phospholipid Bilayers

made up of membrane lipids and membrane proteins, functions as a fluid not solid
The membranes lipids and proteins can move laterally within the bilayer (constantly changing)

Nucleus

Structure- Jellylike structure nucleoplasm
Function- the brain of the operation, houses and protects the cell's genetic info, site when DNA is transcribed into RNA

Nuclear Envelope

The double membrane that surronds the nucleus
Made up of 2 phospholipids bilayers
Surface lined with nuclear pores which serve as passageways RNA and other materials to enter/leave nucleus

Nucleolus

Denser area of the Nucleus
site where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA

Mitochondria

Structure: Made of inner/outer phospholipid membrane
Function: the powerhouse, Transfer energy from organic molecules to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Inner Membrane of Mitochondria

consists of many fo0lds called cristae which contain proteins that carry out energy-harvesting reactions

ATP

Ultimately powers most of the cel's chemical reactions

Ribsomes

Structure: Small, roughly spherical organelles, do not have a membrane, Made up of protein and RNA moleculs,
Assembly: begins in nucleolus and ends in cytoplasm
Functions: Protein Synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Structure: System of membranous tubes and sacs called cisternae
Two types of ER: Rough, Smooth
Fucntion: Intracellular highway, a path along wihc molecules move from one part of the cell to another, amount of ER within a cell differs depending on the cell's activity

Rough ER

Covered with ribsomes
Produces phospholipids and proteins that are exported or inserted
EX. Digestive enzymes, most prominent in cells that produce large amount of protien for export

Smooth ER

Not covered in ribosomes
Builds lipids produces steroid hormones.
Ex Estrogen testosterone
Releases calcium in skeletal and heart muscle cells

Golgi Apparatus

Structure: Flattened membranous sacs
Function: post office, recieves vesicles from nucleus, modify vesicl contents, adds address labels

Vesicles

Structure: Small, spherically shaped sacs surrounded by a single membrane, classified by contents

Lysosomes

Structure: bud from golgi; contain digestive enzymes
Function: breakdown
Examples: In the liver, WBC breakdown bacteria, in cell: breakdown of organelles, break down cells when they die

Peroxisomes

Structure: similar to lysosomes but contain different enzymes, not produced by golgi
Function: neutralize detoxify alcohol and drugs

Cytoskeleton

Structure: A network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross the cytosol: Microtubles, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments
Function: Gives structure and shape to cells, acts as tracks for movement within the cell, anchor organelles in place

Microtubules

hollow tubes made of protein called tubulin, radiate out from central point near nucleus called centrosome

Microfilaments

Long threads of the beadlike protein actin linked end to end and wrapped around each other, part of cell movement

Intermediate Filaments

Rod like structures that anchor the nucleus and other organelles into place

Cillia and Flagella

Structure: Hair like that extend from surface of the cell and share a 9:2 microtubules organization
Function: Assist in Cell movement

Cilia

Short, present in large numbers used as oars on a boat to direct food into mouth-like opening

Flagella

Long single hair like structure Used to propel the cell

3 Extra Parts of a Plant Cell

Cell Wall, Central Vacuole, Plastids

Cell Wall

Structure: rigid layer outside the membrane, contains cellulose, a carbohydrate embedded in a matrix of proteins and other carbs
Function: Structure and protection, allowed water, ions and some molecules to enter and exit the cell

Central Vacuole

Structure: Large, Fluid-filled organelle, formed from fusion of smaller vacuoles
Functions: that stores water, enzymes, metabolic wastes, and other materials, turgur pressure

Plastids

Structure: Organelles surrounded by double membrane contain own DNA
Function: Contains specific substances and performs a specific function for the cell

Chloroplasts

Structure: contain a system or Flattened, membranous sacs call thylakoids which contain chlorophyll the main molecules that absorbs light and captures E
Function: Photosynthesis

Chromoplasts: Contain colorful pigments that

Contain colorful pigments that may or may not take part in photosynthesis

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