Cardiovascular System

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What is included in the cardiovascular system?

heart, blood, and blood vessels

What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

Maintains homeostasis
Transports nutrients, wastes, hormones, respiratory gases, salts, electrolytes
Protects against disease
Regulate pH
Maintain water balance
Prevents hemorrhage
Regulates temperature

Name 3 types of blood vessels.

arteries
veins
capillaries

Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?

arteries

Which vessels return blood to the heart?

veins

Which are the smallest vessels that exchange materials with tissue fluids?

capillaries

Do the larger blood vessels have blood vessels of their own? If so, explain why.

yes because they require oxygen and nutrients

Describe the outer layer of an arterial wall.

mostly fibrous connective

Describe the middle layer of an arterial wall.

mostly smooth muscle; thickest

Describe the inner layer of an arterial wall.

endothelium (simple squamous epithelium) with connective tissue basement membrane with elastic fibers

What are arterioles?

small arteries

How does the constriction and dilation of arterioles affect blood pressure?

the greater the number dilated, the lower the blood pressure
the fewer the number dilated, the higher the blood pressure

How thick are the walls of capillaries?

one cell thick

Are there capillary beds present in all regions of the body?

yes, almost all regions

Where are capillary beds not present?

cartilage, cornea, epidermis, epithelial

Why are capillaries a very important part of the cardiovascular system?

they connect arterioles and venules
they exchange materials with tissue fluid

Compare the wall of a vein with that of an artery. Which wall is thinner?

veins have same three layers as arteries, but middle layer poorly developed

Which wall is thinner, vein or artery?

vein

What accounts for blood flow in arteries and arterioles?

kept moving by pumping of the heart

What accounts for blood flow In veins?

due to skeletal muscle contraction

Are valves characteristic of arteries or veins?

veins

How do valves function?

allow blood to flow only in one direction and prevent back flow

What are varicose veins?

blood pooling in veins causing them to enlarge

At any time, how much of the blood is in veins?

more than half

Why is it said that the veins act as a reservoir?

because the veins hold the majority of the body's blood

What percentage of blood is found in veins?

70%

How large is the human heart?

the size of the human fist

What is the myocardium?

the major portion of the heart made of cardiac muscle tissue

Describe the myocardium's tissue makeup.

branched and tightly joined to one another

What is the pericardium?

where the heart lies

As a serous membrane, what would the pericardium's tissue makeup be?

connective and endothelial tissue

What is the epicardium?

outer protective layer of the heart

Describe the epicardium's tissue makeup.

cardiac muscle

What is the endocardium?

innermost layer of heart tissue that lines the cavities and valves of the heart

Describe the endocardium's tissue makeup.

loose connective tissue and simple squamous epithelial tissue

How many chambers does the human heart have?

four

Name and describe the upper chambers.

atria (upper 2 chambers) are weaker and sends blood to lower chambers

Name and describe the lower chambers.

ventricles (lower 2 chambers) are stronger with thicker walls. R vent sends blood to lungs. L vent sends blood to rest of body

What divides the heart internally?

septum

The heart valves permit only ___-way flow of blood.

one

What are atrioventricular valves?

allow blood to pass from the atria to the ventricles, closing tight to block leakage of blood back into the atria.

What are semilunar valves?

open to let blood pass out of the ventricles

Which specific valve is between the right atrium and the right ventricle?

tricuspid

Which specific valve is between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

bicuspid

Which valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk?

semilunar valves

Which valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta?

aortic valve

What are the chordae tendineae?

strong fibrous strings that prevent the AV valve from inverting when heart contracts

Trace the route of blood through the heart.

...

Why is the heart called a double pump?

because the right ventricle sends blood into the lungs and the left ventricle sends blood into the rest of the body

Why are the walls of the left ventricle thicker than those of the right ventricle?

because it has a harder job of pumping blood to the entire body

In what vessel is blood pressure the greatest?

aorta

What is a cardiac cycle?

heartbeat

What does a heartbeat consist of?

systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of the heart muscle

How many times a minute does the average adult heart beat?

60-80 beats

How long does each heartbeat last?

.85 sec

What is systole?

contraction of the heart muscle (atria & ventricles)

What is diastole?

relaxation of the heart muscle (atria and ventricles)

The atria have a short ______, followed by the longer and stronger ventricular systole.

systole

What accounts for the sound of the heartbeat, "lub-dub"?

heartbeats

The "lub" sound occurs when __________ valves close.

atrioventricular

The "dub" occurs when ________ valves close.

semilunar

What is a heart murmur?

unusual heart sound; slight whooshing after the "lub"

Is the heartbeat regulated intrinsically?

yes

What does the SA node do?

it itinitiates the heartbeat and sends out an excitation impulse (pacemaker); caused the atria to contract

What is the SA node's location?

it is located in the upper dorsal wall of the right atrium

What is the SA node's nickname?

sinoatrial node

What does the AV node do?

transmits impulses received from the SA node to ventricular walls

What is the AV node's location?

located near the base of the right atrium very near the septum

What are Purkinje fibers?

specialized muscle fibers that conduct the cardiac impulse from the AV bundle into the ventricles

What do Purkinje fibers signal the ventricles to do?

causes ventricles to contract

Is the heartbeat regulated extrinsically? If so, how?

Yes by way of the autonomic system, a portion of the nervous system

Where and what is the cardiac center?

coordinates the activity of the autonomic innervation of the heart
located in the medulla oblongata

The parasympathetic system, which promotes functions associated with normal activities, ___ the heartbeat; while the sympathetic system, which regulates responses associated with stress, __ the heartbeat.

slows, speeds up

What is an ECG?

electrocardiogram: recording of electrical changes that accompany a cardiac cycle

What is indicated by the P wave of an ECG?

atria about to contract

What is indicated by the QRS complex of an ECG?

ventricles about to contract

What is indicated by the T wave of an ECG?

ventricles relax

What are the 2 circuits of the cardiovascular system?

pulmonary and systemic

Know the general route of blood flow through the body.

...

What is a portal system?

a second bed of capillaries; an exception to the usual route

Give an example of a portal system in the human.

hepatic portal system and renal portal system

What is meant by blood pressure?

Pressure of blood against the wall of a blood vessel

What does systolic pressure result from?

blood being forced into the arteries during ventricular systole

What does diastolic pressure result from?

pressure in the arteries during ventricular diastole

Which blood vessel is usually used to record blood pressure?

brachial artery

What is a normal blood pressure reading?

120/80

What is blood?

tissue in which cells are separated by a liquid called plasma

What type of tissue is blood?

vascular connective tissue

What type of tissue is the matrix?

plasma

What are the two main portions of blood?

plasma and blood cells

What are the formed elements of blood?

blood cells or fragments

What is the chemical composition of plasma?

plasma, leukocytes, platelets, erythrocytes

What are the 3 main plasma proteins?

albumin, fibrinogen, and globulin

Where is albumin made and what is its task?

made by liver and takes care of blood volume and pressure

Where is fibrinogen made and what is its task?

made by liver and takes care of blood clotting

Where is globulin made and what is its task?

made by liver and transport and fights infection (antibodies)

What is hemoglobin?

a protein-based component of red blood cells which is primarily responsible for transferring oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body

What is the significance of iron with regard to hemoglobin?

red blood cell production is decreased most often due to a diet that does not contain iron

How many times does hemoglobin increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood?

800-1120 million

Where are erythrocytes made?

bone marrow

Where are erythrocytes destroyed?

red pulp of the spleen

What happens to the erythrocytes hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin is released when rbc are broken down

What happens to the erythrocytes iron?

Iron is recovered and return to marrow for reuse

What happens to the erythrocytes heme?

Heme is degraded and excreted as bile pigments; color of feces and bruises

What may cause anemia?

1. decreased production of red blood cells
2. loss of red blood cells from the body
3. destruction of red blood cells in the body

What may cause hypoxia?

not enough oxygen to some or all of their body

What is erythropoietin?

a hormone

Where erythropoietin it produced?

in the kidneys

What does erythropoietin do?

stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow when it senses that the oxygen level in the body's tissues is low

What is phagocytosis?

a process which is used by cells to engulf and subsequently ingest particles of nutrients or bacteria.

What are macrophages?

a type of white blood cell which eat foreign material in the body

What do T lymphocytes do?

leave the bone marrow and mature in the thymus

What do B lymphocytes do?

stay within the bone marrow until they are mature. once mature, they spread throughout the body and concentrate in the spleen and lymph nodes

Summarize the steps in clotting using Figure 12.14.

1. platelets & damaged tissue release prothrombin activator
2. thrombin act on fibrinogen to form fibrin threads
3. red blood cells get caught in fibrin threads

What is fibrinogen?

plasma protein that is converted into fibrin threads during clotting

What is prothrombin?

plasma protein converted to thrombin during clotting

What does thrombin do?

converts fibrinogen to fibrin threads

What is fibrin?

insoluble protein threads formed from fibrogen during clotting

What is serum?

light yellow liquid left after clotting

What are stem cells?

any cells that can divide and differentiate into more functionally specific cells

What are 2 types of stem cells derived from multipotent stem cells that give rise to the different type of formed elements?

myeloid stem cells
lymphoid stem cells

What are two forces that primarily control movement of fluid through the capillary wall?

osmotic pressure & blood pressure

Explain briefly what happens at the arterial end of a capillary?

blood pressure is higher than osmotic & water exits

Explain briefly what happens at the mid-section?

forces cancel each other & no water moves

Explain briefly what happens at the venous end?

osmotic pressure is greater than blood pressure; water moves into the capillaries

How does tissue fluid form?

when small substances of of red blood cells and plasma proteins leave the capillaries

Why does tissue fluid usually lack plasma proteins?

because the proteins generally stay in the capillaries

How does lymph form?

when plasma leaks out of blood vessels into the interstitial space

What genetic factors predispose an individual to cardiovascular disease?

1. family history of heart attacks under 55
2. gender
3. ethnicity

Name 3 do's for a heart-healthy lifestyle.

healthy diet, exercise, cholesterol

Name 3 don't for a heart-healthy lifestyle.

smoking, drugs, obesity

What blood type is the universal donor in the ABO system?

O

What blood type is the universal recipient in the ABO system?

AB

What ABO blood types are the most common and the least common among U.S. African Americans?

O-common; B-uncommon

What ABO blood types are the most common and the least common among U.S. Caucasians?

O-common; AB-uncommon

What is agglutination?

clumping of red blood cells

What is an antibody?

a protein found in the blood or body fluid

What is an antigen?

a substance which stimulates an immune response

In the Rh system do Rh+ cells have antigens on their surface?

yes

In the Rh system do Rh- cells have antigens on their surface?

no

Do Rh-negative individuals normally make antibodies against the Rh antigen?

do not normally have antibody for antigen unless exposed to it

When would Rh-negative individuals make antibodies against the Rh antigen?

during pregnancy

Why can this be a problem?

not problem for first baby but subsequent babies if rhogam shot is not administered in pregnancy or no later than 72 hours after giving birth to Rh+ baby

What is HDN?

hemolytic disease of the newborn

What is Blood Type As antigen on the surface of RBC?

A

What is Blood Type As antibody in plasma?

B

Blood Type A can be given to?

A, AB

Blood Type A can receive from?

A, O

What is Blood Type Bs antigen on the surface of RBC?

B

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