in the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other state s or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and military means
economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit
a term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country-such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
a term employed to designate forces that unite and bind a country together---such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith
rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place
refers to the center, heart, or focus. In a nation-state, this area is the heartland with the largest population cluster, the most productive economy, , the area with the greatest centrality and accessibility, and probably contains the capital city as well
process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians
Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives.
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
a political territorial system in which a central government represents the various entities within a nation state where they have common interests (defense, foreign affairs, etc.) yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws and customs in certain spheres
political boundary defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) as a straight line or an arc
redistricting for the advantage of one political party
a geographical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder during the first two decades of the 20th century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. Mackinder proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would control the vast heartland to the east.
in the context of determining representative districts, the process by which a majority of the population is from the minority
a protectionist policy of European states during the 16th to 18th centuries that promoted a state's economic position in the contest with other countries. The acquisition of gold and silver and the maintenance of a favorable balance of trade were central to the policy
state with more than one nation within its borders
nation that stretches across borders and across states
Legally, a term encompassing all the citizens of a state. Most definitions now tend to refer to a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes.
theoretically, a recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation.
Peace of Westphalia
peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology, and generate less wealth than core processes in the world economy
physical political boundary
political boundaries that coincide with prominent physical features in the natural landscape--such as rivers or the crest ridges of mountain ranges
a subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface
process by which representative districts are changed according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. In cartography, the ratio of map distance to ground distance indicated on a map as a bar graph, representative fraction, and/or verbal statement
place where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
a principle of international relations that holds that the final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with legitimate rulers of independent states
in the context of determining representative districts, the process by which the majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein insuring control by the majority in each of the districts, as opposed to the result of using majority-minority districts
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community
a nation that does not have a state
in political geography a country's or a more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its desire to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
the right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursions from other states
system wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district
world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.