A system for communicating with others using signals that convey meaning and are combined according to rules of grammar.
The smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise.
A set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds.
The smallest meaningful units of language.
A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages.
A set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words.
A set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences.
The meaning of a sentence.
How a sentence is worded.
The fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure.
Speech that is devoid of function morphemes and consists mostly of content words.
The view that language development is best explained as innate, biological capacity.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
A collection of processes that facilitate language learning.
A syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence.
Difficulty in producing or comprehending language.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The proposal that language shapes the nature of thought.
A mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events, or other stimuli.
A neurological syndrome that is characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category undisturbed.
Family Resemblance Theory
Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member.
The "best" or "most typical member" of a category.
A theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgements by comparing a new instance with stored members for other instances of the category.
Rational Choice Theory
The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two.
Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently.
A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached.
A well-defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem.
When people think that two events are more likely to occur together rather than either individual event.
A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event.
When people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed).
A framing effect in which people make decisions about a current situation based on that they have previously invested in the situation.
Proposes that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains.
Frequency Format Hypothesis
The proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur.
A process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current situation and the desired goal.
Analogical Problem Solving
Solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem.
The tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed.
A mental activity that consists of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.
Figuring out what to do, or reasoning directed toward action.
Reasoning directed toward arriving at a belief.
People's judgments about whether to accept conclusions depend more on how believable the conclusions are than on whether the arguments are logically valid.
Determining whether a conclusion follows from two statements that are assumed to be true.