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nationalism

a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation

militarism

the policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war and their use as a tool of diplomacy

Allies

the group of nations - originally consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia and later joined by the United States, Italy, and others - that opposed the Central Powers

Central Powers

the group of nations - led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire - that opposed the Allies in World War I

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

heir to the Austrian throne

no man's land

an unoccupied region between opposing armies

trench warfare

military operations in which the opposing forces attack and counterattack from systems of fortified ditches rather than on an open battlefield.

Lusitania

a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915

Zimmermann note

a message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I

Eddie Rickenbacker

famous fighter pilot of World War I, was well known as a racecar driver before the war.

Selective Service Act

a law, enacted in 1917, that required men to register for military service

convoy system

the protection of merchant ships from U-boat - German submarine - attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships

American Expeditionary Force

the U.S. forces, led by General John Pershing, who fought with the Allies in Europe during World War I

General John J. Pershing

leader of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

Alvin York

sought exemption as a conscientious objector pointing out that the Bible says, "Thou shalt not kill". He eventually decided that it was morally acceptable to fight if the cause was just. He is one of America's greatest war heroes

conscientious objector

a person who refuses, on moral grounds, to participate in warfare

armistice

a truce, or agreement to end an armed conflict

War Industries Board

an agency established during World War I to increase efficiency and discourage waste in war-related industries

Bernard M. Baruch

leader of the War Industries Board

propaganda

a kind of biased communication designed to influence people's thoughts and actions

George Creel

head of the Committee on Public Information

Espionage and Sedition Acts

two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in World War I

Great Migration

the large-scale movement of African Americans from the South to Northern cities in the early 20th century

Fourteen Points

the principles making up President Woodrow Wilson's plan for world peace following World War I

League of Nations

an association of nations established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace

Georges Clemenceau

the French premier, that had lived through two German invasions of France and was determined to prevent future invasions

David Lloyd George

the British prime minister, won reelection on the slogan "Make Germany Pay"

Treaty of Versailles

the 1919 peace treaty at the end of World War I which established new nations, borders, and war reparations

reparations

the compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage or injury it inflicted during a war

war-guilt clause

a provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for World War I

Henry Cabot Lodge

led conservative senators that were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression. They wanted the constitutional right of Congress to declare war included int eh treaty.

German continually violate international laws of war by

targeting passenger commercial ships without warning

Why did the Germans target commercial ships?

Because it was carrying "contraband" 4200 cases of ammunition

What did Germans promise to do?

To give warning before attacking non-military vessels

When did Germany finally announce a return to "wrestricied submarine warfare"

February 1917

What does AEF stand for?

American Expeditionary Forces

Who controlled the AEF?

General John J. Preshing

Who are the "doughboys"?

American troops

When did a small force of "doughboys" arrived in France?

July 4, 1917

What was the Selective Service Act?

The American war draft.

How many signed up under the Selective Service Act?

10 million

When did the first large unit of trained Americans arrive just in time for the second battle of the Marne River?

June 1918

When was General Preshing in control of 500,000 men?

August 1918

In what dogfight over France was Quentin Roosevelt killed?

Cheateau Thirry

What was the Battle of Sedan?

Americans slipped 50 miles behind German lines to cut the railroad which supplied the German Front.

October 1918

More than 1 million Americans took part in the Battle of the Argomene Front, smashing through German defenses.

November 11, 1918

Armistice - an agreement to stop fighting was signed

How many months did fighting continue?

5 months

How many soldiers from both sides were killed?

50, 280

What made a difference in the war?

American replacement troops

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