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Straited muscle

regular arrangement of actin and myosin

Smooth muscle

uninucleate, contracts slowley

Sarcoplsmic reticulum

Smooth ER in muscle cells

Myofibril

in a muscle fiber, contains aligned protein structures

Sarcomere

functional unit of striated muscle

Sarcolemma

outer membrane of the skeletal muscle fiber

T tubules

invaginations of the sarcolemma

Terminal cisternae

Expanded portions of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondria and glycogen granules

found between myofibrils

Red fibers

high concentration of myoglobin and glycogen, fatigue resistant

White fibers

less mitochondria, myoglobin etc

Motor unit

motor neuron and muscle fibers that are innervated by it

Motor end plate

neuron and muscle fiber contact

Junctional folds

folded sarcolemma in motor end plate

Muscle spindles

receptors in muscle that sense degree of stretch of a muscle

Intrafusal fibers

fibers in a muscle spindle

nuclear bag

larger intrafusal fibers

nuclear chain

smaller intrafusal fibers

Smooth muscle

doesn't have striations, located in gi, repro, iris, etc

Sarcolemma

plasma membrane, has caveolae

Caveolae

small invaginations and vesicles on sarcolemma, release calcium ions

dense bodies

attachment sites for intermediate myosin filaments, dark stain in cytoplasm

Jap junctions

Between sm cells, allows ionic communication bt cells

Hepatocytes

The parenchyma of the liver, contains glycogen/lipid

tight, desmosomes, and gap

Types of juctions that hepatocytes have

Sinusoids

Spaces in between hepatocytes, "of disse"

Kupffer cell

line liver sinusoids, has fixed macrophage, binds: hemoglobin, LDL, etc, antigen processing, RBC degradation

Ito cell

lipid droplets, stores vitamin A in liver

endothelial

fenestrated,no pericytes, type 4 collagen

Serosa

Visceral peritoneum, may contain smooth muscle

Reticular fibers

holds liver together

Classic Hepatic lobule

Endocrine fxn of liver, centered around a central vein, triad (artery, vein, bile) on side,

Sinusoids

small blood vessels bt hepatocyte plates

Bile canalicula

drain into bile ductules then interlobular bile duct

Distributing veins/arteries

connect artery/vein into sinusoids

Portal lobule

exocrine fxn of liver, bile

Liver Acinus

3 zones, hepatic reginerations

Chondrocytes

Cells in cartilage

Collagen, Elastic

Fibers in cartilage

Lacunae

space that chondrocyte is in

Hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate

two major glycosaminoglycans in collagen, b/c of sulfate bonds stains basophilically

Perichondrium

capsule-like sheath of dense irregular connective tissue (ABSENT IN FIBROCARTILAGE)

Centers of chondrification

sites of developing cartilage

Territorial matrix

matrix surrounding each lacunae

Interstital growth

add matrix from existing chondrocytes

Appositional growth

cartilage growth from outside

Fibrocartilage

intervertebral disks, menisci of stifle joint, no perichondrium, has collagen bundles

Hyaline cartilage

articular surfaces (no perichondrium), nose, larynx etc, has collagen fibers

Elastic cartilage

pinna of ear, epiglottis, has elastic fibers

limellae

longitudinally laminar structures or curved sheets

Osteons

structural unit of bone, circularing a centeral canal

Interstitial lamellae

irregular groups of lamellae

Circumferential lamellae

continuous bony lamellae extending around external and internal surfaces of bone shaft

osteocytes

live in lacunae in bone

osteoclasts

involved in bone reabsorption

Volksmans canals

tunnel that osteons communicate to each other

Intramembranous bone formation

bone that forms directly from mesenchyme (skull)

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