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alveolus

terminal element of the respiratory tract where gas exchange occurs

bronchus

one or two subdivision of the trachea

bronchiole

increasingly smaller subdivision of the bronchi

cilium (cilia)

hairlike mobile projection from the surface of a cell

expiration

breathe out

inspiration

breathe in

olfaction

sense of smell

oxygen

the gas essential for life

pharyx

tube from the back of the nose to the larynx

pulmon

lung

rale

crackle heard through a stethoscope when air bubbles through liquid in the lungs

respiration

process of breathing

sputum

matter coughes up and spat out by individuals with respiratory illness

trachea

air tube from the larynx to the bronchii

coryza (rhinitis)

accute inflammation of the mucus membrane of the nose

decongestant

agent the reduces the swelling and fluid in the nose and sinuses

epistaxis

nosebleed

naris; nares; nasal

nostril

palate

roof of the mouth, floor of the nose

paranasal

adjacent to the nose

polyp

any mass of tissue that projects outward

septum

thin wall separating two cavities or tissue masses

sinus

cavity or hollow space in a bone or other tissue

itis

inflammation

adenoid

single mass of lymphoid tissue in the midline at the back of the throat

apnea

absence of spontaneous respiration

hypoxemia

low oxygen level in arterial blood

hypoxia

deficient in oxygen

oropharynx

region at the back of the mouth between the soft palate and the tip of the epiglottis

polysomnography

test to monitor brain waves, muscle tension, eye movement and oxygen levels in the blood as the patient sleeps

tonsil

mass of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat at the back of the tongue

croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)

infection of the upper airways in children characterized by a barking sound

epiglottis

leaf shaped plate of cartilage that shuts off the larynx during swallowing

intubation

insertion of a tube into the trachea

larynx

organ of sound production

papilla

any small projection

stridor

high pitched noise made when there is a respiratory obstruction in the larynx or trachea

vocal

pertaining to the voice

diaphragm

muscular sheet separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities

fissure

deep furrow or cleft

lobe

subdivision of an organ

mediastinum

area between the lungs containing the heart, aorta, venae cavae, esophagus, and the trachea

pleura

membrane covering the lung

bradypnea

slow breathing

tachypnea

fast breathing

cyanosis

blue discoloration of the skin, lips and nail beds due to low levels of oxygen in the blood

dyspnea

difficult breathing

eupnea

normal breathing

exhale

breathe out

expectorate

cough up and spit out mucus from the respiratory tract

hemoptysis

bloody sputum

hyperpnea

deeper and more rapid breathing than normal

asthma

difficulty breathing due to narrowed or obstructed aiways

auscultation

diagnostic method of listening to body sounds with a stethoscope

bulla

bubble-like dilated structure

cystic fibrosis

excessive viscid mucus obstruct passages including bronchi

emphysema

dilation of the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli

hypercapnia

abnormal increase of carbon dioxide in the arterial bloodstream

capn

carbon dioxide

rhonchus

wheezing sound heard on auscultation of the lungs. made by air passing through a constricted lumen

viscosity

resistance of fluid to flow

adenocarcinoma

a cancer arising from glandular epithelial cells

anthracosis

lung disease cause by the inhalation of coal dust

anthrac

coal

anthrax

a severe malignant infectious disease (carbuncle)

atelectasis

collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants)

bronchogenic

arising from a bronchus

empyema

a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)

hemothorax

blood in the pleural cavity

pnuemoconiosis

fibrotic lung disease caused by inhalation of different dusts

pneumonia

respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

sarcoidosis

a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands

silicosis

a lung disease caused by inhaling particles of silica or quartz or slate

thoracentesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space

tuberculosis

infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)

endotracheal

pertaining to within the trachea

mediastinoscopy

endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum

spirometer

a measuring instrument for measuring the vital capacity of the lungs

thoracotomy

surgical incision into the chest wall

tomography

radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth

cannula

a small flexible tube inserted into a body cavity for draining off fluid or introducing medication

immunization

the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)

mucolytic

Agent capable of dissolving or liquefying mucus

nebulizer

device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment

pneumonectomy

removal of a lung

resection

surgical removal of part of a structure or organ

tracheostomy

surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck

tracheotomy

incision into the trachea

ventilation

the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation

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