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In early childhood, autistic children have difficulty

with communication

When 4-year-old Karen is angry, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of

an externalizing problem

The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called

automatization

The biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the

hypothalamus

For boys, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is

growth of the testes; initial pubic-hair growth; growth of the penis; spermarche

Girls who bully typically

mock and ridicule their victim

When Piaget and Inhelder asked children of different ages to balance a scale using several different weights, they found that

by age 10, children tended to use trial-and-error strategies

Jefferson High School has rules and regulations that guarantee student representation in school affairs. John, a senior, has learned that the administration of his high school wants obedience. Obedience at John's school is a(n)

hidden curriculum

The Electra complex causes girls to

adore their father and resent their mother

Which of the following contributes to an adolescent's lessening susceptibility to respiratory infections

shrinkage of the lymphoid system

A child who feels responsible for whatever happens in the family, whether negative or positive, is experiencing

parentification

Does the ability of schoolchildren to use deductive reasoning tend to develop at the same time as their ability to use inductive reasoning?

No, deductive reasoning tends to develop later than inductive reasoning

Because adolescents regard themselves as uniquely special

it is difficult for them to envision another person's perspective

The percentage of adolescents that consumed the recommended five or more servings of fruits or vegetables daily has

decreased over the past decade

Which of the following is true of hypothetical thought

It involves imagined possibilities

In girls, the average age for the breast bud stage is

10

In the United States, in which of the following ethnic groups would you be least likely to find single fathers?

Asian Americans

Of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?

prefrontal cortex

Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this?

parallel play

Developmental psychopathology has given us the following lesson applicable to all children

abnormality is normal

What percent of teh world's 7-year-olds ar in school, approximately?

90 percent

Evaluating a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish and monitor one's performance is called

metacognition

Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but is not intended to harm is called

rough-and-tumble play

Which of the following is the most frequently reported STI?

Chlamydia

According to Erikson, which of the following is typical of young children?

an immodest self-concept

Preconventional morality involves

an emphasis on reward and punishment

Diana Baumrind is known for her work on

styles of parenting

By the age of 10, which of the following is true regarding friendships?

Both boys and girls want to have best friends

Kanner describes autism as

"an extreme aloneness...."

The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and

expectations for maturity

For boys, the first ejaculation generally occurs

following growth of the testes and penis

Large high schools are economical, and they

do not increase student learning

Ever since he began puberty, Barry has been staying awake late at night and craving sleep in the mornings. His parents should

realize that this is due to hormonal shifts

Achievement tests are designed to measure

how much has been learned

Using inductive thinking, a person might think, "If it barks like a dog, and wags like a dog, it must be a "

dog

In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called

the Oedipus complex

For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is the

spermarche

Which of the following best explains why children who come from violent homes have few close friends and are lonely?

The children don't learn the skills necessary to sustain close relationships

The still-developing prefrontal cortex and the full development of the limbic system are at least partially responsible for

the passion and commitment with which adolescents and young adults embrace nontraditional ideas

Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because

the theory is seen as not taking inot account cultural differences

If high schools want to decrease the incidence of violence, they should

set clear standards of student behavior

Which of the following attributes is typical of school-age children?

They engage in social comparison

During the latency stage, children

assimilate cultural values

Most likely, autism is caused by

genetic vulnerability coupled with other factors

___ is generally considered a more mature emotion than ___ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awareness

Guilt; shame

Parents' beliefs that they mold their children's personalities may be diminished by the finding that

most of the environmental effects on personality may be from the "nonshared" environment

The IQ test specifically designed for school-age children is the

WISC

To understand gender attitudes and roles, behaviorists stress

reinforcement

One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to

think in terms of possibilities

Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?

the family sharing meals together

The term used to describe an infant's thought process that relies on senses and motor skills is

sensorimotor intelligence

Regarding the visual cliff experiment, even 3-month-olds notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent cliff. However, one affordance of the cliff, falling, is realized only after

infants start crawling

Primary circular reactions involve

the infant's own body

In an experiment, 3-month-old infants could remember one week later to kick their legs to make a crib mobile move, but many could not remember to do it two weeks later. This research indicates that

memory is fragile early in life

According to your text, early sensation appears to be organized toward which two goals?

social interaction and comfor

Which statement is TRUE?
A) Infants develop sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget predicted
B) Piaget accurately predicted the speed of infant cognitive development
C) Piaget utilized an acceptable experimental design to test his cognitive development theory
D) NONE of the above statements is true

Infants develop sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget predicted

Information is carried from one neuron to another by

neurotransmitters

According to the text, which three factors enable toddlers to walk?

muscle strength, brain maturation, and practice

Children show evidence of memory as early as ___ months of age

3

Stage four of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by

new adaptation and anticipation

Which research approach looks at various cohorts over time?

cross-sequential

In his cross-sequential study on intelligence and age, Schaie found that after age 53, in men the cognitive ability for ___ was the most rapidly declining

word fluency

When does senescence start?

the end of adolescence

Which of the following is NOT one of Sternberg's three fundamental forms of intelligence? a) analytic b) fluid c) creative d) practical

fluid

Rosa works as a chemist and in her spare time is a history buff. She would be said to be high in:

crystallized intelligence

Compared to men, women live:

5 years longer

What aspect of the study of adult intelligence changes every few decades?

measures of intelligence

As we age, the lens of the eye becomes less elastic and the cornea flattens. This leads to:

farsightedness

___ of all IVF cycles produce a pregnancy

one-third

In 1970, in the United States, ___ of all adult men and ___ of all adult women smoked

one-half; one-third

Emerging adults are ___ likely than high school senior to drink too much and ___ likely to be addicted to cigarettes

more; more

According to research by Labouvie-Vief (2006), no one under the age of 20 was in the advanced ___ stage of self-description

integrated

For emerging adults, friends with benefits implies that:

sexual passion is less important than friendship

About ___ percent of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia

1

According to the text, "complex, critical, and relativizing thinking emerges only"

in the 20s

Today's emerging adults have ___ than previous generations

more sexual partners

In what period of life do people engage in the heaviest drinking (binge)?

emerging adulthood

When compared to college freshman, college seniors exhibit better

all of these answers are correct (oral and written communication; abstract reasoning and critical thinking; intellectual flexibility)

An explanation for the prevalence of schizophrenia in males age 18 to 24 is

the diathesis-stress model of mental illness

The category of self-description that is fragmented and overwhelmed by emotions or problems is called

dysregulated

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