Chapter 11: Motivation and Work
|Motivation||Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal|
|Aron Ralston|| Motivated to cut his arm in order to free himself from a rock that pinned him down|
Played by James Franco
|Instinct Theory||Focused on generally predisposed behaviors|
|Instincts||A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned|
|Drive-Reduction Theory||The idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need|
|Homeostasis|| The maintenance of a steady internal state|
The regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
|Incentive|| A positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior|
Ex. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive
|Arousal Theory|| Each individual has an optimal level of arousal (alertness, paying attention) that varies from one situation to the next|
Maintained by desire at that moment
|Hierarchy of Needs/ Motives|| Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs become active|
|Transpersonal|| Meaning, purpose, and communion that is beyond the self|
At the self actualization level
|Physiology of Hunger||Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger|
|Stomachs Removed||Tsang (1938) removed rat stomachs, connected the esophagus to the small intestines, and the rats still felt hungry (and ate food)|
|Lateral Hypothalamus||Brings on hunger|
|Set Point|| The body's "weight thermostat"|
Heredity influences set point and body type
|Basal Metabolic Rate||The body's resting rate of energy expenditure|
|Anorexia Nervosa||A condition in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent woman) continuously loses weight but still feels overweight|
|Bulimia Nervosa||A disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise|
|Binge-Eating Disorder||Eat a lot without purging, fasting, or exercise|
|Reasons for Eating Disorder|| Sexual abuse- no|
|Obesity and Weight Control|| Fat is an ideal form of stored energy and is readily available |
In times of famine, an overweight body was a sign of affluence
|Weight Bias|| Discrimination against obesity|
Every stage of the employment cycle
|Body Mass Index (BMI)||Obesity in children increases their risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, arthritis, and certain types of cancer, thus shortening their life-expectancy|
|Obesity and Mortality||The death rate is high among very overweight men|
|Fat Cells||Never increase in number, just size|
|Genetic Factor of Weight||Identical twin studies reveal that body weight has a genetic basis|
|Sexual Motivation||Sexual motivation is nature's clever way of making people procreate, enabling our species to survive|
|Excitement||Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina expands secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges.|
|Plateau||Excitement peaks such as breathing, pulse and blood pressure.|
|Orgasm||Contractions all over the body. Increase in breathing, pulse & blood pressure. Sexual release.|
|Resolution||Engorged genital release blood. Male goes through refractory phase. Women resolve slower.|
|Sexual Problems|| Men: premature ejaculation and erectile disorder|
Women: may suffer from orgasmic disorders
|Contraception||Ignorance: Canadian teen girls do not have the right ideas about birth control methods.|
Guilt Related to Sexual Activity: Guilt reduces sexual activity, but it also reduces the use of contraceptives.
Minimal Communication: Many teenagers feel uncomfortable discussing contraceptives.
Alcohol Use: Those who use alcohol prior to sex are less likely to use contraceptives.
Mass Media: The media's portrayal of unsafe extramarital sex decreases the use of contraceptives.
|Sexually Transmitted Infections||Factors that reduce sexual activity in teens:|
High Intelligence: Teens with higher intelligence are likely to delay sex.
Religiosity: Religious teens and adults often reserve sex for a marital commitment.
Father Presence: A father's absence from home can contribute to higher teen sexual activity.
Learning Programs: Teens who volunteer and tutor in programs dedicated to reducing teen pregnancy are less likely to engage in unsafe sex.
|Sexual Orientation||A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, and/or either sex.|
|Sexual Orientation Statistics||In Europe and America, based on many national surveys, homosexuality in men is 3-4% and in women is 1-2%.|
|Erotic Plasticity||Men focus on one sex or the other, while women are more flexible|
|Origins of Sexual Orientation||Homosexuality is more likely based on biological factors like differing brain centers, genetics, and parental hormone exposure rather than environmental factors|
|Animal Homosexuality||A number of animal species are devoted to same-sex partners, suggesting that homosexuality exists in the animal world|
|Genes & Sexual Orientation|| Family: Homosexuality seems to run in families.|
Twin studies: Homosexuality is more common in identical twins than fraternal twins.
Fruit flies: Genetic engineers can genetically manipulate females to act like males during courtship and males to act like females.
|Fraternal Birth-Order Effect||The odds of homosexuality increase with amount of older brothers|
|Flow||A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills|
|Work and Satisfaction||In industrialized countries work and satisfaction go hand-in-hand|
|Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology||Applies psychological principles to the workplace.|
|Personnel Psychology||Studies the principles of selecting and evaluating workers|
|Organizational Psychology||Studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity|
|Human Factors Psychology||Explores how machines and environments can be designed to fit our natural perception|
|Harnessing Strengths||Identifying people's strengths (analytical, disciplined, eager to learn etc.) and matching them to a particular area of work is the first step toward workplace effectiveness|
|Do Interviews Predict Performance?|| Interviewers are confident in their ability to predict long-term job performance|
However, informal interviews are less informative than standardized tests
|The Interviewer Illusion||Interviewers often overrate their discernment|
|Intention vs. Habits||Intensions matter, but long- lasting habits matter even more|
|Successful Employees||Interviewers are more likely to talk about those employees that turned out successful|
|Presumptions about Candidates||Interviewers presume that what we see (candidate) is what we get, they're wrong|
|Preconceptions||An interviewer's prior knowledge about the candidate may affect her judgment|
|Structured Interview||A formal and disciplined way of gathering information from the interviewee. Structured interviews pinpoint strengths (attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and skills)|
|Appraising Performance|| Appraising performance serves the purposes of: |
1) employee retention
2) determining rewards/pay
3) the encouragement of better performance
|Employee Engagement|| Knows what is expected of him.|
Has what is needed to do the work.
Feels fulfilled at work.
Has opportunities to do his best.
Thinks himself to be a part of something significant.
Has opportunities to learn and develop.
|Achievement Motivation||Achievement motivation is defined as a desire for significant accomplishment|
|Emotional roots||Learning to associate achievement with positive emotions|
|Cognitive roots||Learning to attribute achievements to one's own competence, thus raising expectations of oneself|