Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal
Motivated to cut his arm in order to free himself from a rock that pinned him down
Played by James Franco
Focused on generally predisposed behaviors
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
The idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
The maintenance of a steady internal state
The regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
A positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior
Ex. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive
Each individual has an optimal level of arousal (alertness, paying attention) that varies from one situation to the next
Maintained by desire at that moment
Hierarchy of Needs/ Motives
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs become active
Meaning, purpose, and communion that is beyond the self
At the self actualization level
Physiology of Hunger
Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger
Tsang (1938) removed rat stomachs, connected the esophagus to the small intestines, and the rats still felt hungry (and ate food)
Brings on hunger
The body's "weight thermostat"
Heredity influences set point and body type
Basal Metabolic Rate
The body's resting rate of energy expenditure
A condition in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent woman) continuously loses weight but still feels overweight
A disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise
Eat a lot without purging, fasting, or exercise
Reasons for Eating Disorder
Sexual abuse- no
Obesity and Weight Control
Fat is an ideal form of stored energy and is readily available
In times of famine, an overweight body was a sign of affluence
Discrimination against obesity
Every stage of the employment cycle
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Obesity in children increases their risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, arthritis, and certain types of cancer, thus shortening their life-expectancy
Obesity and Mortality
The death rate is high among very overweight men
Never increase in number, just size
Genetic Factor of Weight
Identical twin studies reveal that body weight has a genetic basis
Sexual motivation is nature's clever way of making people procreate, enabling our species to survive
Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina expands secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges.
Excitement peaks such as breathing, pulse and blood pressure.
Contractions all over the body. Increase in breathing, pulse & blood pressure. Sexual release.
Engorged genital release blood. Male goes through refractory phase. Women resolve slower.
Men: premature ejaculation and erectile disorder
Women: may suffer from orgasmic disorders
Ignorance: Canadian teen girls do not have the right ideas about birth control methods.
Guilt Related to Sexual Activity: Guilt reduces sexual activity, but it also reduces the use of contraceptives.
Minimal Communication: Many teenagers feel uncomfortable discussing contraceptives.
Alcohol Use: Those who use alcohol prior to sex are less likely to use contraceptives.
Mass Media: The media's portrayal of unsafe extramarital sex decreases the use of contraceptives.
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Factors that reduce sexual activity in teens:
High Intelligence: Teens with higher intelligence are likely to delay sex.
Religiosity: Religious teens and adults often reserve sex for a marital commitment.
Father Presence: A father's absence from home can contribute to higher teen sexual activity.
Learning Programs: Teens who volunteer and tutor in programs dedicated to reducing teen pregnancy are less likely to engage in unsafe sex.
A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, and/or either sex.
Sexual Orientation Statistics
In Europe and America, based on many national surveys, homosexuality in men is 3-4% and in women is 1-2%.
Men focus on one sex or the other, while women are more flexible
Origins of Sexual Orientation
Homosexuality is more likely based on biological factors like differing brain centers, genetics, and parental hormone exposure rather than environmental factors
A number of animal species are devoted to same-sex partners, suggesting that homosexuality exists in the animal world
Genes & Sexual Orientation
Family: Homosexuality seems to run in families.
Twin studies: Homosexuality is more common in identical twins than fraternal twins.
Fruit flies: Genetic engineers can genetically manipulate females to act like males during courtship and males to act like females.
Fraternal Birth-Order Effect
The odds of homosexuality increase with amount of older brothers
A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
Work and Satisfaction
In industrialized countries work and satisfaction go hand-in-hand
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
Applies psychological principles to the workplace.
Studies the principles of selecting and evaluating workers
Studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity
Human Factors Psychology
Explores how machines and environments can be designed to fit our natural perception
Identifying people's strengths (analytical, disciplined, eager to learn etc.) and matching them to a particular area of work is the first step toward workplace effectiveness
Do Interviews Predict Performance?
Interviewers are confident in their ability to predict long-term job performance
However, informal interviews are less informative than standardized tests
The Interviewer Illusion
Interviewers often overrate their discernment
Intention vs. Habits
Intensions matter, but long- lasting habits matter even more
Interviewers are more likely to talk about those employees that turned out successful
Presumptions about Candidates
Interviewers presume that what we see (candidate) is what we get, they're wrong
An interviewer's prior knowledge about the candidate may affect her judgment
A formal and disciplined way of gathering information from the interviewee. Structured interviews pinpoint strengths (attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and skills)
Appraising performance serves the purposes of:
1) employee retention
2) determining rewards/pay
3) the encouragement of better performance
Knows what is expected of him.
Has what is needed to do the work.
Feels fulfilled at work.
Has opportunities to do his best.
Thinks himself to be a part of something significant.
Has opportunities to learn and develop.
Achievement motivation is defined as a desire for significant accomplishment
Learning to associate achievement with positive emotions
Learning to attribute achievements to one's own competence, thus raising expectations of oneself