syst. of glands that secretes hormones in the body
controls emotions and helps with forming memories
limbic system location
lies on both sides of thalamus
Sustaining ____ can lead to Parkinson's Disease
monitors internal body conditions
hypothalamus is connect to _____ by stalk
_______ releases factors to Pituitary
Anterior and posterior
2 Lobes of the pituitary
Pituitary lobe with outgrowth from the roof of the mouth
pituitary lobe with outgrowth from the brain
wh. pituitary lobe doesn't synthesize hormones
Posterior Pituitary Lobe secretes which hormones
Anterior Pituitary Lobe secretes which hormones
ACTH, thyrotropic, FSH, LH, Prolactin, Somatatropin
hormone that regulates salt and water targets kidney walls
triggers uterine contractions during birth; acts as mammary glands to secrete milk
hormone; adrenal glands
hormone; thyroid gland
hormone (x2); ovary
regulates the internal environment to maintain stable, constant conditions...BALANCE
Normal blood levels for homeostasis
When blood glucose is low ___ cells release _____
When blood glucose is high ____ calls release _____
as hormone levels rise, secretion is inhibited
as hormone levels rise, secretion is stimulated
When LH is secreted by ovaries it eventually causes the follicle to burst, which is called what?
CL or Corpus Luteum
Ovulation causes ___(hormone)___ formation
CL secretes ____ wh. stimulates uterine lining growth
implanted embryo produces ___ which maintains CL
hormones are ____ molecules
synergistically, antagonistically, permissively
3 ways hormones interact with each other
____ hormones assemble from cholesterol
____ hormones assemble from amino acids
Steroid hormones are ___ soluble
Peptide hormones are ___ soluble
2nd Messenger of Peptide hormone
intracellular molecule that relays signals from hormone-receptor complex into the cell
most common 2nd messenger molecule
Thyroid gland synthesizes and secretes _____
Thyroid gland requires ___ bc it's lacking salt deposits
cortisol, adrenaline or epinephrine
Adrenal gland cortex produces _____
medulla produces _____
light-sensitive gland that regulates timing of sexual activity in mammals, secretes melatonin, and regulates circadian rhythms
melatonin is secreted in the absence of what?
______ develops if Beta cells don't produce enough insulin of if target tissues don't respond to insulin
Hormones + Glands = Endocrine System
Classic View of the Endocrine System
system that secretes out of body and have ducts (tears, saliva, sweat, etc...)
the pancreas is responsible for what to systems
physiological process by which oxygen moves into internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out
gases diffuse along
concentration of gases
primary determinant of differential pressure is _________
20% .21/160 mm HG
79% 600 mm Hg
Oxygen __% in air and partial press___/____
Nitrogen __% in air and partial press ___
Carbon Dioxide __% in air and partial press ___
pressure exerted by the weight of air on objects on earth's surface
Diffusion of cellular metabolism uses __ and produces __
O2 concentration inside cell tends to be low/high?
CO2 concentrations inside cell tends to be low/high?
under the right conditions...O2 will diffuse in/out cells and CO2 will diffuse in/out of cells
moist thin different
in order for diffusion to take place...
cell surfaces must be ______
membrane must be ______
O2 and CO2 concentrations must be _____ across membrane
as animal size ____, surface-to-volume ratio ____
the need for providing O2 to all parts of the cell
size of the cell is limited by what?
most common transport protein
dissolve O2 from H2) from the gills
How do aquatic animals get O2?
blood flow can optimize gas exchange across gills by_____
spiracles and lungs
2 ways to maintain moisture in terrestrial animals
outside throughout the body
In Insects, trachea tubes open to _____ and branch ______
there is no ______ for oxygen in insect
complexity of branching in vertebrate lungs is dependent on what?
Amphibian juveniles use _______ for respiration while adults use ______ ....(hybrid)
bottom of oral cavity
in amphibians, air is forced into the lungs by the movement of what?
inelastic vascular air sacs
Avian (bird) lungs are
________ - don't move a lot
________ - have a lot of blood flow
________ - added accessories for respiration
In birds, more O2 is taken up as air goes through the lungs during inhale/exhale?
nasal/oral, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiole, alveoli
order of the mammalian respiratory tract
dead end sacs at the end of bronchiole of mammalian lungs where actual exchange of gases takes place
pulmonary arteries carry ____ oxygenated air than pulmonary veins
hemoglobin consist of 4 ______ with _____ at it's center
Hemoglobin has great affinity for oxygen at high/low partial pressure in capillaries?
Hemoglobin has lower affinity for oxygen in tissues where there's a high/low partial pressure
Fetal or Adult hemoglobin has higher affinity
# of red blood cells and increase their heart and lung size
individuals living at higher altitudes increase what two things?
carbon monoxide nitrates/nitrites
what is produced when molecules bind strongly to hemoglobin making it unavailable for transport of O2?
____% of carboxyhemoglobin can cause death
CO2 forms what?
bicarbonate is highly reactive in what?
helps in controlling breathing by setting rhythm; centers in pons fine-tune it
concentration of oxygen and hydrogen
magnitude of breathing depends on ______
carotid and aortic bodies
____ and ___ detect drops in oxygen and responds by increases breathing
protection against free radicals
extended life span of C.Elegans. Drosophila by...
extended life span of D. melanogaster by...
mouth pharynx esophagus stomach liver gallbladder pancreas small intestine large intestine rectum anus
major components of the digestive system
_____ cells line the entire digestive tract
fats proteins carbohydrates nucleic acids
food is a mixture of which complex substances
fatty acids amino acids simple sugars
monomers absorbed across cell membranes
The process of turning food into absorbable nutrients
movement of nutrients across cell membranes into blood
carbohydrates proteins lipids nucleic acids
major classes of molecules in food
lipids nucleic acids carbohydrates proteins
major classes of molecules in food
___ -built up from triglycerides
___ - sugar/phosphate backbone; bases
___ - based on sugars C, H, and O
___ - built up from amino acids contain N
Digestion is mediated by _____
fiber, olestra, water
substances not absorbed that become feces
mouth amylases disaccharides chiton cellulose
Digestion of Carbohydrates
Enzymes in saliva?
Cannot be digested by vertebrate enzymes
stomach pepsin trypsin chymotrypsin carboxy- and amino-peptidases
Digestion of Proteins
____ - cleaves proteins into small peptides
in small intestine.. cleavage is continued by (3)
_____ in proteins poses problems in excretory system
stomach endo exo
Digestion of Nucleic Acids
____ and ___ nucleases continue degradation
small intestine bile cholesterol lipases
Digestion if Lipids
liver secretes ___ into gall bladder
bile derives from _____
Emulsified fats can be digested by ____
small intestine jejunum
absorption of nutrients occurs mostly where?
which part is most absorptive
villi have outer surfaces composed of ______ which increase surface area of jejunum
carbohydrates proteins fats
______ used for energy
______ building, repair structures
______ insulation, some vitamins, linoleic acid
Vitamins are ____ and ___ soluble
lead cadmium mercury
purely toxic mineral s(3)
any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond basic nutrition function of supplying nutrients0-
ammonia uric acids urea
Chemistry of Waste
aquatic animals generate _____
birds, lizards, terrestrial arthropods _____
Mammals generate _____
renal capsules outer renal cortex inner renal medulla renal pelvis ureter nephron
structure of kidney
______ surround kidneys
______ collects urine and funnels it to _____
basic unit = _______
cup-like sac at end of nephron that filters blood to urine; contains many capillaries
loop of henle
bowman's capsule connects to what?
in bloodstream inside tubule of nephron in extracellular space
abstracting the system
3 compartments = ___ ___ ___
each day ___ liters of filtrate flows out of glomeruli into tubules
______ liters or urine excreted
regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine.
more reabsorption of water
longer loop of henle allows what?
feedbacks kidney to hypothalamus
from hairpin bend to distal tubule
hormonal action is triggered by _____ from ___ to ___
concentrating urine more
in collecting tubules of nephron
water is removed from filtrate causing what?
posterior pituitary collecting ducts makes walls more permeable to water and urine more concentrated posterior pituitary injury and diabetes
secreted by ______
acts on ________; what does it do? (2)
loss of ADH leads to what? (2)
adrenal glands sodium decreases renin
secreted by ______
stimulates _________ from extracellular spaces
If too much NA+ is lost from the body, extracellular fluid volume increase/decrease causing wall of glomerulus to secrete _____
walls of glomerulus angiotensin II
Renin is secreted by _______ and activates _______
precursor protein is in ____
increased angiotensin increases ____ reabsorption
glomerulus renin increases sodium blood pressure kidney failure 140/90
Failure of Aldosterone feedback system
when blood flow through glomerulus decreases...
____ secretes _____
Aldosterone secretion increase/decrease?
____ retained in the body
_____ goes up
High blood pressure leads to _____
avoid blood pressure > ___/___
diffusion simple filtering tubes malpighian tubules
Elimination of waste
one-celled organisms - ____
flatworms - ____
insects - ___
marine freshwater marine marine
water and salt balance in bony fish (freshwater vs. marine)
which drinks water?
water gain by osmosis going in?
solutes pumped out?
small volume of urine?