Chapter 21 The Immune System

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A graft from a monkey to a human is an example of an allograft.

FALSE, XENOGRAFT

Cellular ingestion and destruction of particulate matter is called phagocytosis.

True

The respiratory burst produced by some macrophages releases free radicals.

True

The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis.

True

Soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called antibodies.

True

A given pathogen will provoke either a cell-mediated response or an antibody-mediated response but not both.

True

Fever is seldom beneficial because it speeds up the cellular metabolic rate and will not allow antigen-antibody reactions to occur.

False

Monoclonal antibodies can be specific for several antigenic determinants.

False, single antigenic

Both T cells and B cells must accomplish double recognition: They must simultaneously recognize self and nonself to be activated.

False

Some immunocompetent cells will never be called to service in our lifetime.

True

Anaphylactic shock can result from an immediate hypersensitivity where the allergen enters the blood.

True

Adaptive immunity is provided only by lymphocytes to foreign red blood cells.

False, antibodies

Somatic recombination by B cells allows each B cell to form its own unique antibody genes.

True

Antigens can be complete or incomplete.

True

It is our genes, not antigens, that determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

False

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

antigenic

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the

bone marrow

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

The redness and heat of an inflamed are are due to local hyperemia caused by

vasodilation

The antibody molecule is held together by

disulfide bonds

In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

antigen

Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called?

Chemotaxis

Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called

Haptens

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events is phagocytosis?

Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the

Cytotoxic cells

Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?

pathogens in the CNS

Macrophages

predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

Interferons

interfere with viral replication within cells.

The type of antigen

determines what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

Regulatory T cells

may function in preventing autoimmune reactions.

Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.

Isografts are between identical twins.

Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

Antigens only come from microbes.

Cytokines

are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells attract other leukocytes into the area.

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

Phagocytes

Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

Reactivity with an antibody

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by

...

Graft rejection may be caused by

using a xenograft

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by

natural killer cells

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed

opsonization

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ.

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except

juvenile diabetes

Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

allergic contact dermatitis

Innate immune system defenses include

phagocytosis

Fever

production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

Immunocompetence

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self"

Tolerance is developed during fetal life.

Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.

Cytotoxic T cells

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells.

Helper T cells

function in the adaptive immune system activation

Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.

The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.

Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?

They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.

Delayed hypersensitivies

include allergic contact dermatitis

Natural Killer (NK) cells

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

Select the correct statement about antigens.

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?

helper T cell

Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

a second exposure to an allergen.

Select the correct statement about complement.

An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.

Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?

IgM contains 10 binding sites.

Which statement is true about T cells?

Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.

Toll-like receptors (TLR) trigger the release of

CYTOKINES to attract white blood cells to the scene.

Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?

activating cytokines

What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses.

XENOGRAFTS

are grafts taken from another animal species.

Pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant are called

MONOCLONAL

ALLERGIES

are the most common type of immediate hypersensitivity.

NK

cells can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before he immune system is activated.

SEPTIC

is a dangerous condition where the cytokines are released unchecked, making the capillaries very leaky and thus depleting blood fluids.

Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms are called

PATHOGENS

COMPLEMENT

refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in an inactive state and are a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body.

The antibody that becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals is

IgE

A(n) hybridomas

is a cell hybrid formed from the fusion of tumor cells and B lymphocytes.

CYTOTOXIC

cells are the only T lymphocytes that can directly attack and kill other cells.

GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

is an autoimmune disease that severely impairs renal function.

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