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Etruscans

people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade

Struggle of the Orders

A great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.

Roman virtue

Source of debate; whether the republic was losing its old-time purity and goodness

Roman Senate

A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. (148)

Roman Tribunate

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Twelve Tables

(450) The codification of roman laws in the early republican period, the Plebeians wanted to carve out a level of legal protection and status for themselves against the patricians

Gallic invasion

(387) - Gauls sacked Rome,

Latin League

a confederation of Latin cities neighboring Rome; each member held equal rights in the coalition. Rome conquered them and broke up the Latin League.

tax farmers

indirect taxes farmed out to highest bidder, people who won charged more than they needed for commission, was very inefficient and corrupt, only peasants and middle class paid taxes-nobles were exempt

Carthage

City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)

Hannibal

Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.

Punic Wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.

Battle of Cannae

Worst Roman defeat in Punic wars-- 2nd Punic War; 216; Hannibal kills them all; As a result, Rome loses lotsa allies and NOBODY wants to fight Hannibal for 10 years

brothers Grachi

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Social War

War from 91-89 BCE between Rome and most of the Italian allies. As a result of this civil war, the Senate granted citizenship to Rome's Italian allies.

First Triumvirate

a political alliance between Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey in which they agreed to advance one another's interests. did not work: Civil war broke out, While caesar is in Gaul, Pompeii has the senate declare him as an enemy, caesar defeated pompeii and was granted dictatorship.

proscription lists

were a list of enemies of the republic that were posted by sulla, basically a death warrant and any roman citizen could kill anyone on the list, was used to get rid of the supporters of MARIOUS, abolishes all grockei reforms.

Augustus (Octavian)

Destroyed the old patricians (traded old elites for new elites), maintains the old republic, controls army, legal and money.

Patron-Client Relationship

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paterfamilias

, the head of the family or household in Roman law -always male- and the only member to have full legal rights. This person had absolute power over his family, which extended to life and death.

coloni

they were very similar to serfs, they worked for wages or compensation, movement is limited.

Spartacus

A Thracian sold to slavery to become a Gladiator. He led a revolt of slaves against the Rome forces and won. He hoped to escape to freedom but his army waged more wars, they planned to invade Sicily but were betrayed and defeated in 71 B.C. Six thousand of his men were crucified as a warning.

Zealots

radical or orthodox jews, refuses to pay any tax to the romans, fought the romans in a guerilla tactic, they vowed to remove the romans from Judah, Rome can not maintain ORDER in Judaeh, civil war, famine

Jewish exemption

exempted jews from roman military to try and get to jews to accept their presents,

"Christ-killer" myth

the thought that the jews were responsible for christ's death, PILOT and the romans killed him, under roman laws.

Roman Church

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Paul of Tarsus

A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. He also came up with the subjugation of women in the church.

Emperor Constantine

founded Constantinople; best known for being the first Catholic Roman Emperor; issued the Edict of Milan, granting religious tolerance throughout the empire

Council of Nicaea

Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons. Set up by Constantine.

Pax Romana

Roman peace,' The stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas (154)

barbarization

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"barracks emperors"

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Muhammad

Came from family of merchants. Founded Islam. Believed he was the final prophet. Learned of Christianity and Judaism from merchants. Believed Gabriel the archangel told him he was god's prophet. Wrote the Koran. Forced out of Mecca to Medena. ONE god, the divinity of allah.

Qu'ran

Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.

Hegira

the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era

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