idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western land
Whig Representative of Kentucky, he introduced a bill proposing the Second Bank of the United States, ran for President in 1844
James K. Polk
Democratic, Former congressman and governor of Tennessee, promised to annex Texas and Oregon and buy California from Mexico, ran for president in 1844, and won the election.
"54"40' or Fight"
Polk stated he wanted all of oregon to line 54 40 north latitude or they will fight
Polk sent him as a representative to Mexico City to try to purchase California
led troops across the Nueces River (Mexico viewed this as an invasion)
John C. Fremont
led settlers in Northern California to start an uprising against Mexico
Bear Flag Republic
California declared independence from Mexico, and renamed their region this
member of the Whig party, his force landed at Veracruz and headed for Mexico City, battling the enemy along the way, they captured the capital
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Mexico gave up more than 500,000 square miles of territory to the United States
proposed that in any territory the United States gained from Mexico "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist"
proposed popular sovereignty
the citizens of each new territory should be allowed to decide for themselves if they wanted to permit slavery or not.
opposed slavery and taylor
supported slavery and taylor
Conscience Whigs, antislavery Democrats, and abolitionists of the Liberty Party who joined together and opposed slavery in the "free soil" of western territories
80,000 that arrived in California to look for Gold
Compromise of 1850
proposed by clay, eased the tensions over the slavery in the south but not in the north, and what would happen to the new territories in the west; prevented civil war or succession.
senator that defended the south saying if the Compromise of 1850 passed then the South would fall apart
senator of Massachusetts who supported clay's Compromise of 1850, calling on the senate to put national unity above sectional loyalties
Senator of Kentucky proposed the Compromise of 1850 "The Great Compromiser"
Uncle Tom's Cabin
originally an anti-slavery newspaper that was published as a book, presented real people enslaved in dreadful circumstances, considered a cause of the civil war
Harriet Beecher Stowe
writer of Uncle Toms Cabin
Fugitive Slave Act
a person claiming that an African American had escaped from slavery had only to point out that person as a runaway to take him or her into custody.
essay written by Thoreau justifying the Fugitive Slave Act
Informal but organized system which helped thousands of enslaved people escape
runaway slave and Famous conductor of the Underground Railroad
built to connect the West Coast to the rest of the Country
30,000 square-mile strip of land in Arizona and New Mexico, which mexico accepted $10 million for the territory
bill organized the Gadsden Purchase in to new territory called Nebraska
New England Emigrant Aid Society
an abolitionist group founded to recruit and outfit antislavery settlers bound for Kansas.
thousands of armed missourians that voted illegally in Kansas
Senator of Massachusetts, a fiery abolitionist, delivered a speech accusing pro-slavery senators of forcing Kansas into the ranks of slave state.
Andrew P. Butler
Senator of South Carolina, pro-slavery singled out in Charles Sumner's anti-slavery speech.
Brutally beat sumner with his cain for criticizing the South Carolina, his relative Butler, and the south.
people got angry about the Kansas-Nebraska act causing Whigs, members of the Free-soil party, and a few anti-slavery democrats to come together.
anti-catholic and ant-immigrant group
John C. Fremont
a famous Western explorer nicknamed "The Pathfinder". Spoke in favor of Kansas becoming a free state
he believed the best way to save the Union was to make concession to the South.
enslaved man who Missouri slaveholder took him to live in free territory before returning to Missouri. Assisted by abolitionist, he sued to end his slavery, arguing that the time he had spent in free territory meant he was free.
First Catholic Chief justice; ruled against scott because he claimed African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not sue in the courts
popular vote on the constitution
Republican who ran for the Senate against Stephen Douglas, later nominated to run president
"The Little Giant" ran against Lincoln for the Senate
abolitionist who believed "God had raised him up on purpose to break the laws of the wicked" tried to seize the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, and arm enslaved people
federal arsenal, that was attacked by Brown
rebellion against slaveholders
vice president, Southern Democrats nominate him to run for president
first republican nominee, not very popular so they switched to Lincoln
Constitutional Union Party
campaigned on a position of upholding both the Constitution and the Union
proposed amendments to the constitution, one guaranteed slavery where it already existed, another reinstated missouri compromise line, Slavery prohibited north and protected south of line
former Mississippi senator chosen to as president of the Confederacy
declared to be a new nation--the Confederate States of American
Davis tried to take it, began the Civil War
when the military takes control of an area and replaces civilian authorities, and it suspends certain civil rights
Robert E. Lee
one of the best senior officers in the united states army, offered commander of union, instead dropped out of army and joined confederacy
Tredegar Iron Works
southern factory capable of producing cannons
Legal Tender Act
created a national currency and allowed the government to issue paper money
strongly supported the conflict and hoped to restore the Union to the way it was before the war
a person's rights not to be imprisoned person unless charged with a crime and given a trial
Davis's vice president, who was against Davis because he suspended habeas corpus and forced people to join the army
North captured Mason and Slidell and is forced to return them by GB
sent from south to Britain
sent from south to France
long knives attacked to he front of their guns.
cone shaped allowed rifles to be accurate at much greater ranges
the wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of soldiers and resources
Union blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi to divide the confederacy. Causing the South to run out of resources.
P.G. T. Beauregard
led confederate troops under his command gathered south 25 miles south of DC
Led reinforcement at Bull Run and was rallied behind; went on to become one of the most effective commanders in the Confederate Army
Union commander who retreated at Bull Run
small fast vessels the South used to Smuggle goods past the blockade, usually under the cover of night
Alabama & Florida
two of the most famous confederate raider warships
David G. Farragut
daringly led fleet upriver through Confederate Forts, who attacked them, all but 4 ships made it through
Ulysses S. Grant
Union general who began a campaign to seize control of two rivers: The Cumberland River, and the Tennessee River.
Grant is attacked off guard, he holds the line, and attacks offensively the next day causing the Confederates to retreat
battle ended inconclusively and after Union reinforcements arrived Bragg retreats
George B. McClellan
Lincoln orders him to lead Union in the east
bloodiest one day battle in the war, and in American History
a decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion
Union regiment which fought valiantly at Fort Wagner near Charlestown Harbor, loosing nearly half of its soldiers
Famous British nurse who inspired many women to take on many of the nursing tasks in army hospitals
first female physician in the US, started the nation's first training program for nurses.
U.S. Sanitary Commission
an organization that provided medical assistance and supplies to army camps and hospitals
most infamous prison prison in the South, in Georgia, open camp with no shade or shelter for its giant population
the commandment at Andersonville, became the only person executed for War Crimes during the civil war.
the last major confederate stronghold on the river
took 1,700 troops on a cavalry raid through Mississippi, tearing up railroads, burning depots, and fighting skirmishes
Lincoln urged him to go south into Virginia and destroy Lee's Army.
Burnside ordered a series of bloody assaults against Lee here but it failed and the Union lost more than twice as many as the Confederates
Hooker attacked Lee here in the Wilderness, Lee outnumbered 2-1 Lee still defeated the Union
Lincoln replaced burnside with him after he was embarrassed in Fredericksburg
Lincoln replaced Hooker with him after Hooker failed at Chancellorsville
mile-wide line of Confederate troops that marched across open farmland toward Cemetery ridge
one of the best known orations in American History; talked about how all men are created equally
Union forced the Confederates to evacuate here without a fight, all of a sudden Confederates attacked and surrounded the Union at Chattanooga
Union forces came to back up the surrounded Northerners and drove the Confederates back
a densely forested area near Fredericksburg, Virginia
a strategic crossroads northeast of Richmond
staged a cavalry raid north and west of Richmond to distract Lee's troops
William T. Sherman
lead the "March to the Sea"
March to the Sea
troops marched to destroy everything in Atlanta of military value, including railroads, warehouses, mills, factories, and machine shops. Fire spread burning down 1/3 of Atlanta.
looting everything around
clear sign from the voters, to end slavery permanently by amending the Constitution
Banned Slavery in the WHOLE United States
here ragged and battered troops surrounded and outnumbered, Lee surrendered to Grant
John Wilkes Booth
rebuilding after the war
pardon to all southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the United States and accepted the Unions proclamations concerning slavery
Radical Rep of Pennsylvania, did not want to reconcile with the South
Radical Rep of Massachusetts, did not want to reconcile with the South
required the majority of the adult white men in a former Confederate state to take an oath of allegiance to the Union
to let the session of Congress expire without signing the legislation.
group given the task on feeding and clothing war refugees in the South using surplus army supplies
Democrat living in Tennessee before the Civil War, became president after Lincoln was assassinated
varied from state to state which severely limited African Americans rights in the South
granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States and declared that no state could deprive a person of life, liberty, or property.
Military Reconstruction Act
divided the former Confederacy except for Tennessee, into five military Districts
charging with high crimes and misdemeanors in office
right to vote should not be denied by race, color, or prior servitude
Northerners that moved to the South, carried suitcases made of carpet fabric
an old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals
gaining money illegally through politics
Ku Klux Klan
southern secret society, who's goal was drive out the Union troops and carpetbaggers and regain control of the South for the Democratic Party
Ulysses S. Grant
Union Commander who led the North to victory in the Civil War
tax on alcohol and tobacco, that helped pay off War bonds
ran against Grant to prevent his second term and still lost
A group of government officials and distillers in St. Louis cheated the government out of millions of dollars by filing false tax reports.
caused smaller banks to close and the stock market to plummet. Many Businesses shut down and many Americans out of work
Southern democrats who called on all whites to take back the South from "Black Republican" rule
Compromise of 1877
a promise by the Republicans to pull federal troops out of the South, if Hayes was elected.
a wealthy corporate lawyer and former governor of New York who had tried to end the corruption in New York City's government.