Service begun in 1860 that used a relay of riders on horses to deliver mail from Missouri to California in 10 days.
machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire
invented the telegraph and Morse code
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
The Union Pacific started at _____________
The Central Pacific R.R. started at ______________
Lakota chief who objected to the railroads being built on Lakota lands.
Promontory Point, Utah Territory
The place where the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads meet symbolized by a golden spike on May 10, 1869.
An area on Earth that runs north and south in chich all places have the same time.
The time set by law for all the places in a time zone.
A flat tree-less landscape that stretches through the central portion of North America from Texas to Canada. Also called the "Great American Desert".
people who first settle in an area
Signed in 1862 by President Lincoln gaving 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $10.
Settlers who claimed land on the Great Plains under the Homestead Act.
name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm
United States writer who wrote about frontier life in her novel "O Pioneers".
Leader of African American pioneers know as exodusters, who moved to the Great Plains after the Civil War.
African Americans who migrated from the South to the west after the Civil War
Town in Kansas that was founded by African American pioneers known as exodusters.
The use of new ideas to make tools that improve people's lives.
Immigrant farmer from Japan who became known as the "Potato King".
A graph that shows two kinds of information about the climate of a place. It shows both average temperature and the average precipitation for a particular place over a period of time.
cowboys guided huge herds of cattle to railroads
Dodge City, Kansas
A railroad town that was the end of many cattle drives
A rancher who established the Goodnight-Loving Trail, which ran from Texas to Colorado in 1866.
At 15 he gained his freedom from slavery in Tennessee and went west to Dodge City to become a cowboy.
A major railroad center near the middle of the country, became the nation's leading supplier of fresh meat.
Luzena Stanley Wilson
1800's Settler whose family went to California during the 1849 gold rush.
Period when thousands of people traveled to California to search for gold
In January 1859, George Jackson discovered gold here.
A person who starts a new business, hoping to make a profit.
Immigrant from Germany who produced the first denim pants in San Francisco during the California Gold Rush.
Virginia City, Nevada
Almost overnight the town went from a frontier outpost to a boomtown of 30,000 people because gold and silver were found.
A young writer who wrote "Huckleberry Finn" and "Tom Sawyer". He wrote news reports for Virginia City's newspaper, the "Territorial Enterprise".
An area of land set aside for Native Americans.
The reagion of rugged cliffs and dark green valleys promised to the Lakota in the South Dakota territory. When gold was discovered the US tried to buy it back, but Stiiting Bull refused.
Lakota leader who refused to sell the Black Hills back to the US government after gold was found.
Colonel George Custer
Leader of the Seventh Calvery charged with defeating the Lakota and moving them onto a new reservation.
One of Lakots's most successful young war leaders who helped lead to the Lakota victory at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Battle of Little Bighorn
Known as "Custer's Last Stand". Battle of Lakota IndiansNez Perce leader over the Black Hills. The biggest victory Native americans ever won over US forces and it soon led to the end of freedom for Native Americans of the great Plains.
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Apache leader who resisted capture by US Army by leading a group into the mountains of northern Mexico