different molecules made up of the same number and kids of atoms, but aren't arranged the same
an isomer in which the location of the double bond cannot change
isomers that are mirror images of each other
charged molecules are hydrophilic because
water is also charged
carbon can be...
lone atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to carbon atoms of organic compounds that act as a unit.
alt. definition of functional group
clusters of atoms that operate as a unit
functional group characteristics
- are the reactive parts of organic molecules
- affect the characteristics of organic molecules
characteristics of the hydroxyl group
-chemicals that contain this functional group are aka. alcohols
carbon double bonded to oxygen
has the carbonyl at either end of the molecule
has the carbonyl not at the ends of the molecule
the ending "al"
refers to carbonyls ... USUALLY
a molecule can contain...
more than one functional group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
most compounds containing a carboxyl groups are an...because...
acid because they donate hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
ionized version of carboxyl
negatively charged, because it has given up a hydrogen ion
formed when an amine group and a carboxyl group are together
ionized version of an amino acid has...
3 hydrogen ions
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms (PO4), negatively charged.
5 categories of reactions
1. functional group transfer
2. electron transfer
functional group transfer
transfer of a complete functional group
reaction in which water is released, opposite is hydrolysis
splitting two molecules up by adding water
5 master molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in 1:2:1 ration
basic subunit of a carbodydrate
saccharide, formed when carbon hydrogen and oxygen are put together
all carbs are made up of
simple sugars linked together
more than three sugars (lot)
only a few more than three sugars