an elevated amount of ketones in the urine can be a sign of __
increased CO2= hypo or hyper ventilation?
decreased CO2= hypo or hyperventilation?
increased CO2 = acidosis or alkalosis?
decreased CO2= acidotic or alkalotic?
D 0.45% NS is a __ solution and should be given to patients experiencing __ because water will go from the vein to the __
D 0.9% NS and Ringer's are __ solutions
D 3% NS is a __ solution and will cause cells to __
IV tubing can be used for up to __ but should be replaced after that
what are some S/S to look for with IV infiltration?
poss pitting edema
pain @ insertion site
poss decreased in flow rate
for a blood transfusion you need at least a __ gauge needle, preferably a __ gauge
blood infusion must start __ after the blood reaches the unit, and shouldn't be hung for over __
aldesterone causes __ and __ __
sodium and water retention
ADH increases __ __, __ urinary output
__ inhibits the releases of ADH, thus __ water loss in urine
for patients doing self-cath, the nurse must instruct the pt to always use __ __, and to increase __ __
__, __, and __ acidify the urine, helping to prevent UTIs
the client needs to provide a stool sample for guaiac fecal occult blood testing as part of a __
routine screening for colon cancer
the max amount of fluid for a cleansing enema is __-__
if bleeding occurs during an enema, the nurse should __ the __, assess __ __, and notify __
stop the enema,
assess vital signs.
a nurse trained to care for ostomy pts is a __
when irrigating a colostomy, the nurse should use a __ to prevent damage/ injury to the stoma
to prevent client from performing the valsalva's maneuver, the nurse might order a stool softner for clients with what conditions?
risk for increased intracranial pressure
what foods should ostomy patients avoid because they cause gas?
beans, onions, cauliflower
what are three sx of impaction?
continuous bowel sounds
what two foods could give a false reading on a fecal occult blood test?
if a person has IBS or had recent bowel surgery, once they graduate from clear liquids, do not give them a __ diet
if a person has bile problems their stool will be __ colored
light brown/ clay colored
__ kill normal GI flora, causing __
what are some complications of diarrhea?
-stool passing too quickly to allow for absorption
-F & E imbalances
-impaired skin integrity
nursing hx for bowel elimination should include:
-use of artificial aids
-social hx incl cultural considerations
diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum.
visual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectum
a painless, noninvasive X-ray procedure that produces an image created by the computer representing a detailed cross section of the tissue structure within the abdomen.