G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.
Congress of Vienna
1814, meeting place of the Quadruple Alliance to arrange final peace sentence.
Principle of Legitimacy
Metternich's want to restore legitimate monarchs and preserve traditional institutions
Principle of compensation
Land lost, land gained, hoped to restore BOP in Europe
Principle of BOP
creating territories that balance each other to keep Europe balanced.
ideal that opposed sudden upheavals and revolts, and belief that community came before people
Quadruple Alliance met to discuss problems and ways to keep BOP in Europe
Concert of Europe
group that reapproved Quadruple Alliance; met in regular sessions to discuss issues and what had to be done to squash the Italian and Spanish revolts.
Latin American Revolts
many small countries rebelling, trying to gain independence from a weak Spain. (Ex. Bolivia, Columbia, Chile, Argentina)
President James Monroe declared independence of the L.A. Countries, and warned against further European intervention in the New World.
Corn Law of 1815
measure that placed extrmely high tarrifs on forgein grains; Response by Tory party to the falling agricultural prices.
1819, Calvary attacked a crowd of protesters (working-classmen protesting about the rising prices of bread) at St. Peter's Fields in Manchester. This led Parliament to become more repressive and begin to restrict such meetings.
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
student societies dedicated to promoting the goal of a free, united Germany
"Honor, Liberty, Fatherland"
motto for the Burschenschaften, partly inspired by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
government in which one person holds all and unlimited power. (Ex. Russian Tsar Alexander I)
secret society made up of young aristocrats that opposed Alexander I. They favored the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the abolition of feudalism.
1825, military leaders of the Northern Union rebell against the accession of Nicholas I to the Russian throne. The leaders were unaware that Constantine (the first heir) had renounced his claims. The revolt was soon quashed by troops loyal to Nicholas.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna
English Conservative; wasn't against gradual change
Joseph de Maistre
French; in favor of the hereditary absolute monarchy to maintain order.
Liberator of Latin American countries from Spain
U.S. President, issued Monroe Doctrine, which guaranteed the Latin American countries independent from Spain.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Count of Artois, succeeded Louis XVIII. Pursued religious policy that encouraged Catholics to reestablish control over the educational system. (brought instability to France)
Frederick William III
Prussian King during Napoleonic Era, instituted political and institutional reforms in response to Prussia's defeat by Napoleon. (reforms included abolition of serfdom, created self-government though town councils, expansion of schools, and establishment of a national army). However, Prussia remained an absolutist state with little intrest in unity.
(1801-1825) Russian Tsar; abolished serfdom
(1825-1855) Russian Tsar that succeeced Alexander; he strengthened the secret police and the bureaucracy. He was also wiling to use Russian troops to crush revolutions, as he greatly feared them.
edicts that Charles X issued; demolished the Charter, sensored the press, reduced the electorate
immediate rebellion caused by the July Ordinances; brought Louis Phillippe to the throne of France
rising of the Belgians against the Austrian Netherlands; it succeeded in convincing the European powers to accept an independent and neutral Belgium.
Reformat Act of 1832
introduced by Whig party, rearranged the borders of the pocket boroughs in England
Poor Law of 1834
theory that giving aid to the poor and unemployed only encouraged laziness and increased the number of paupers
Anti-Corn law League
1838, established by manufacturers Richard Cobden and John Bright; formed to help workers by lowering bread prices.
cooperative factories run by workers, under the influence of Louis Blanc
The Second Rebuplic (France)
established by a new constitution, ratified on November 4th, 1848; had a unicameral legislature of 750 elected representatives elected by universal manhood suffrage (UMS) for 3 years, and one president, also elected by UMS, for four years. Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President
German Parliament met in Frankfurt to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream: the preparation of a constitution for a united Germany
group that wanted to include the German province of Austria in the united Germany
group that wanted to exclude Austria and make the Prussian King the emperor of the united Germany
1831, organization founded by Mazzini. Goal: creation of united Italian Republic
northern Italian state, only state able to keep its liberal constitution after the revolts ended. King: Charles Albert
cousin of Charles X, became the constitutional king of France in 1830. Called the "bourgeois monarch" because his political support came from the upper middle class, and he dressed similar to them. He issued many constitutional changes that only favored the interests of the upper middle class.
leader of the Tories, convinced the party to support free trade principles and abandon the corn laws in 1846
socialist, member of the radical republican group that established a provisional government in France after Louis Phillippe fled to Britain. Influenced the establishment of national workshops
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
cousin of Napoleon Bonaparte, elected President of France in 1848 for the Second Republic, became Emperor Napoleon within the next four years.
Frederick William IV
King of Prussia, agreed to abolish censorship, establish new constitution, and work for a united Germany.
Emperor of Austria, tried to stop the revolution and waited until a period in which they could reestablish firm control
nephew of Ferdinand I, took power over Austria (what was left, anyways) and worked to restore the imperial gov't in Hungary
Italian nationalist, leader of Italy's resurgence (risorgimento). Created "Young Italy" and wrote
people who believed people should be as free from restraint as possible
classical economics/classical liberalism
primary belief the concept of laissez-faire; if individuals were allowed economic liberty, they would bring about the maximum good for the total benefit of the general welfare of society
cooperative community developed by Fourier
"iron law of wages"
developed by Ricardo in
nationalism (19th century version)
arose out of an awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs; threatened to upset the existing political order (internationally and nationally)
against private property and the competitve spirirt of industrial capitalism, and by eliminating these things, a better environment for humanity could be achieved
German state-financed police force for the city of Berlin, modeled after the London police. By 1851, it had evolved from civilian-based to more military-based and was used for political purposes. Policemen were armed as if they were fighting a war: swords, pistols, and brass knuckles
(1766-1834) Essay on the Principles of Population argued that population, while unchecked, increases fastly while food supply increases slowly, resulting in a severe overpopulation and starvation for the human race.
(1772-1823) Principles of Political Economy, written in 1817, developed Ricardo's famous "iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation
John Stuart Mill
(1806-1873) On Liberty, 1859, argued for "absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects" that needed to be protected from both government censorship and the tyranny of the majority. On the Subjection of Women, 1867, argued that "legal subordination of one sex to the other" was wrong, and women could achieve as much as men.
(1772-1838) proposed the creation of small model communities, each consisting of 1,620 people, to demostrate the advantages of cooperative living. The inhabitants would live and work together for mutual benefit and work assignments rotated frequently to relieve workers of undesirable tasks.
(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
(1813-1882) The Organization of Work stated that social problems could be solved by gov't assistance, called for the establishment of workshops owned by the workers but financed by the state, that would manufacture goods for public sale
Sir Robert Peel
leader of the Tories, convinced the party to support free trade principles and abandon the corn laws in 1846 (see second reading)
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
(1749-1832) German Romantic writer, The Sorrows of the Young Werther
German writers who collected and published a set of local fairy tales
found in the cities in the cathedrals, city halls, parliamentary buildings, and railway stations
(1795-1832) British Romantic writer, the hero never destroyed himself, like in other literature of the time, but transformed society instead. In Carlyle's historical works, he stressed that historical events were determined by the deeds of such heroes.
Edgar Allan Poe
(1808-1849) American poet, wrote Gothic-horror literature
(1791-1851), wrote Frankenstein
Percy Bysshe Shelley
(1792-1822), expelled from school for advocating atheism and set out to reform the world. Prometheus Unbound (1820) was a portrait of the revolt of human beings against the laws and customs that oppressed them.
(1788-1824) dramatized himself as the melancholy Romantic hero that he described in his work, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.
(1770-1850) Romantic poet, used one of the most important aspects of Romanticism: love of nature.
Caspar David Friedrich
(1774-1840) painter of landscapes that had an exceptional presentation of natural details. His works also conveyed a sense of mystery and mysticism. Man and Woman Gazing at the Moon
(1798-1863) most famous French Romantic artist. Fascinated by the exotic and had an extreme passion for color, as evident in The Death of Sardanapalus, which is also significant for its use of light and patches of interrelated color.
(1770-1827) French, purely Romantic composer, transformed the art of music. Used music to convey his feelings of what was going on in the world around him, such as the many French revolutions of that time; Third Symphony, also called the Eroica (originally written for Napoleon) and Ninth Symphony, composed when he was completely deaf
Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand
(1768-1848) Genius of Christianity, 1802, was labeled the "Bible of Romanticism" and defended Catholicism as based on Romantic sentiment not historical, theological, or rational grounds. Said that Catholicism echoed the harmony of all things and that cathedrals brought in the very presence of God.