History 1302

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150 terms · Chapeters 22-24

The Lend-Lease Act

authorized military aid to those fighting
Germany and Japan.

Which group issued its own declaration of war against the Axis power?

The Iroquois

The Holocaust

was the mass extermination of millions of Jews and others in Nazi death camps.

Which area of the United States witnessed the greatest growth during the war

West Coast

Many Americans were convinced by ____ that a policy of isolationism was necessary.

Senator Gerald Nye's report

Government propaganda and war films portrayed the Japanese as

bestial and subhuman

During the war, Americans

experienced the rationing of scarce consumer goods such as gasoline.

In the United States, during World War II

unemployment declined, production soared, and income taxes increased.

The "zoot suit" riots of 1943

highlighted the limits of racial tolerance during World War II.

After a bitter civil war, Francisco Franco established in 1939 a fascist government in

Spain

Which work offered an intellectual justification for opponents of active government, laying the foundation for the rise of modern conservatism?

Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom

"Rosie the Riveter"

refers to Norman Rockwell's images of "womanpower" during the war.

During the war in Europe, Germany's advance into the Soviet Union was reversed at

Stalingrad.

The GI Bill of Rights

provided education and housing benefits for veterans.

The Atlantic Charter

endorsed the freedoms from want and fear.

Approximately ___ persons died immediately after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.

70,000

What was the "final solution"?

Adolf Hitler's plan to mass exterminate "undesirable" peoples

Organized labor assisted in the war effort by

agreeing to a no-strike pledge.

The 1944 conference at Dumbarton Oaks established the

United Nations

In 1940, the cash and carry plan

allowed Great Britain to purchase US arms on a restricted basis.

The Economic Bill of Rights was

not passed by Congress

The GI Bill of Rights provided for Veterans

low cost mortgage loans, scholarships for college education, job training,
ALL of the Above

The Good Neighbor Policy was directed at

Latin America.

"D-Day" refers to the

allied invasion of Europe at Normandy.

The policy followed by Britain and
France toward Germany of giving concessions in hopes of avoiding war was called

appeasement

The program that began in 1942 that allowed experienced Mexican agricultural workers to cross the border to work under government labor contracts was called the

bracero program.

What was not one of the Four Freedoms expressed by FDR?

Freedom of enterprise.

What was the double V campaign?

An attempt to gain victory in Germany and an end to segregation in America.

During the 1930's the Good Neighbor Policy

was a foreign policy based on the recognition of the autonomy of Latin American countries, including those that were ruled by dictatorships.

After the United States entered World War II,

Americans experienced a series of military losses.

The World Bank and International Monetary Fund were established at

Bretton Woods

During World War II, African-Americans

ALL of the above.

The Office of War Information wished to

ALL of the above

Under the bracero program

Mexicans were encouraged to immigrate, but they were denied the right of citizenship.

For most women workers, World War II

allowed them to make temporary gains.

During World War II, American Indians

served in the military and worked in war production.

Men like Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and Father Coughlin were members of the

America First committee, an isolationist group.

Who was the only member of Congress to vote against a declaration of war against Japan after Pearl Harbor?

Jeanette Rankin

The Fair Employment Practices Commission

was the first federal agency since Reconstruction to advocate equal opportunity for blacks

The dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

brought the war to an end but remains controversial.

At Yalta the Big Tree met for a summit. It was here that it was finally agreed

that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific war.

Freedom House was an organization that

demanded American intervention in the European war.

Who is considered the founder of fascism?

Benito Mussolini

In 1940, Franklin Roosevelt

won an unprecedented third term as president

Henry Luce's The American Century

hailed "free economic enterprise."

Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson's concern in his dissent in Korematsu v. United States is that the Court has become an instrument of

congressional policy

December 7, 1941, is known as a "date that will live in infamy." referring to

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Which statement about the Japanese-American internment is false

Once the FBI did background checks on individuals they were free to leave the camps and return home.

Executive Order 9066

authorized the internment of Japanese-Americans.

As fascism rose in Europe and Asia during the 1930s, most Americans

favored an end to international trade.

Which statement is true about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)?

All the members pledged mutual defense against future Soviet attack.

Militant Liberty was the code name for national security agencies encouraging

Hollywood to produce anticommunist movies.

Which statement is not true about Jackie Robinson?

He had an impeccable record while in the army.

Which statement about the Korean conflict is false?

Chinese troops threatened to enter the conflict, but never did.

Which long-held US territory was granted independence in 1946?

Philippines

How did the United States respond to Joseph Stalin's blockade around Berlin?

Truman ordered that supplies be brought to Berlin via airlift.

Joseph McCarthy

was an embarrassment to his party by 1954

One of the reasons that the Soviet Union felt justified in making demands on the Western world was the enormous sacrifice it had made in the World War II, which is estimated at _____ million dead.

20

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

were executed after a questionable trial.

In 1948, the Soviets began the Berlin Blockade

in response to the creation of West Germany.

In 1949, Mao Zedong

led a successful communist revolution in China

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

included freedom of speech and religion.

The first confrontation of the Cold War took place in the Middle East when Soviet troops refused to leave

Iran

The Hollywood Ten

refused to name names

The Truman Doctrine

committed the United States to fighting communism anywhere.

All of the following were goals of the Fair Deal except

passing the Taft-Hartley Act.

George Kennan's Long Telegram outlined the containment policy. What actually put the policy into effect?

ALL of the above.

President Truman's Fair Deal included

a national health insurance plan.

The 1948 presidential race

was the last before television forever changed campaigning.

After World War II ended, Japan

received much economic assistance from the United States.

What do the authors of NSC-68 identify as the "most contagious idea in history"?

Freedom

NSC-68

called for massive increase in US military forces

Who did the States' Rights Party nominate for president in 1948?

Strom Thurmond

Which statement best describes what NSC-68 called for?

A permanent military buildup and a global application of containment

Regarding civil rights, President Truman

desegregated the military in 1948

The Iron Curtain

separated the free West from the communist East

Who were the common victims of McCarthyism?

virtually anyone who refused to cooperate with the investigations

What reason did the Hollywood Ten give for not cooperating with the HUAC hearings?

they felt the hearings were a violation of the First Amendment

The movements for colonial independence

generally has US support

The Korean War

ended in a stalemate

The Cold War

ALL of the above

Who did Whitaker Chambers accuse of being a soviet spy during a HUAC hearing?

Alger Hiss

The Freedom Train

was hailed in the black press

When World War II ended,

ALL of the above.

According to the policy of containment, as laid out by George Kennan, the

United States was committed to preventing the spread of communism.

After the World War II, the only nation that could rival the United States was

the Soviet Union.

Operation Wetback

deported illegal aliens found in Mexican-American neighborhoods.

Jackie Robinson

broke the color barrier in major league baseball

Who led the New York School of painters?

Jackson Pollack

Which statement is not true about the Truman Doctrine?

It guaranteed billions of dollars for the rebuilding of Europe.

Joe McCarthy announced that he had a list of 205 communists who worked for the

State Department.

The Freedom train was

a traveling exhibition of over 100 historical documents.

NATO

was an alliance between the United States and several Western European countries.

The Dixiecrats

supported Harry Truman in 1948

What set a precedent for American assistance to anticommunist regimes throughout the world, no matter how undemocratic?

The Truman Doctrine

Japan's constitution, which Americans had written, provided for the first time in Japanese history

women's suffrage

Which program was in effect to bring a New Deal for Europe?

The Marshall Plan

Harry Truman said that a vote for Henry Wallace in 1948 was in effect a vote for

Joseph Stalin

The Marshall Plan

offered economic assistance to noncommunist governments.

Which civil rights measure was passed into law during Truman's administration?

Desegregation of the armed forces

By the end of the 1950's, what percentage of American families owned a TV set?

90 percent

During the 1950s, agricultural production

rose by 50 percent

Andy Warhol's 1962 piece called Green Coca-Cola
Bottles is best described as

continuous, straight rows of Coca-Cola bottles.

What caused the civil rights movement of the 1950s

ALL of the above.

How was freedom displayed in the American National Exhibition that opened in Moscow in 1958?

As consumption

The Housing Act of 1949

reinforced the concentration of poverty in nonwhite urban neighborhoods.

Many conservative businessmen found intellectual reinforcement in the writings of the economist

Milton Friedman.

Martin Luther King Jr. was

inspired by the teachings of Gandhi.

The 1960 presidential debate between John Kennedy and Richard Nixon

highlighted the impact of television on political campaigns.

During the 1950s, television

changed Americans' eating habits.

During the 1950s, American teenagers

increased in number and were often perceived to be alienated.

After Vietnam was divided at a peace conference in Geneva,

the United States remained neutral.

In 1954, the Supreme Court case known as Brown v Board of Education

found that separate in bus stations was unlawful.

In response to the court-ordered desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas,

violence broke out, and President Eisenhower sent in federal troops.

In the 1960 presidential race, John F. Kennedy became the Democratic candidate, despite

his Catholicism.

Which Supreme Court decision did Brown overturn?

Plessy v. Ferguson

The new conservatives

emphasized tradition, community, and moral commitment.

After World War II, the automobile

altered the American landscape.

Between 1946 and 1960, the American gross national product

more than doubled, and wages increased.

Who warned against the dangerous powers of the military-industrial complex?

Dwight Eisenhower.

In Brown v. Board of Education, what was Thurgood Marshall's main argument before the Supreme Court

That segregation did lifelong damage to the children, undermining their self esteem.

Which statement best describes how the white South reacted to the Brown v. Board of Education decision?

some states closed the public schools, rather than integrate, and offered white children the choice to opt out of the integrated schools.

The Montgomery bus boycott

ALL of the above

The kitchen debates were between

Khrushchev and Nixon

Which statement best describes the thesis of David Riesman's book The Lonely Crowd?

Americans were conformists and lacked the inner resources to lead truly independent lives.

In his 1961 Farewell Address, President Eisenhower warned Americans about

the military-industrial complex.

Along with a home and a TV, what became part of the "standard consumer package" of the 1950s?

a car

Which Middle Eastern country did President Eisenhower use the CIA to overthrow a government in the early 1950s, in large part because it attempted to nationalize
British-owned oil fields?

Iran

During the Cold War, religious differences

were absorbed within the notion of a common Judeo-Christian heritage.

What was the organization called that Martin Luther King Jr. established after the Montgomery bus boycott?

Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC)

By 1960, approximately which percentage of Americans enjoyed what the government defined as a middle-class standard of living?

60 percent

During the Eisenhower administration, US-Soviet relations

improved somewhat after the end of the Korean War and the death of Stalin.

During the 1950s, Americans

on average married younger and had more children.

After World War II, suburban growth

increased dramatically, especially in places like Levittown and California.

Who argued the case Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court?

Thurgood Marshall

Modern Republicanism included

the expansion of core New Deal programs.

Which was not a new innovation of the 1950s that helped to transform Americans daily lives?

Electric iron.

Dwight Eisenhower appointed which kind of individuals to his cabinet?

Wealthy businessmen to run the government like an efficient business.

A balanced mixture of Republicans and Democrats since his party did not control Congress

hardened racial divisions in American life.

In response to the Brown decision and the general growth of the civil rights movement during the 1950s, southern states

subsidized private academies for black students only.

Which state saw the greatest population increase between World War II and 1975?

California

Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president in 1952 in part because he

manifested a public image of fatherly warmth.

As a result of the Montgomery boycott in 1955-1956,

the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public transportation was illegal.

During the postwar suburban boom, African-Americans

were often unable to receive either private or public financing for housing.

To libertarian conservatives, freedom meant

individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalism.

The ability to influence the world with American goods and popular culture is called

soft power

In the 1952 presidential campaign, Richard Nixon's Checkers speech

reflected the growing importance of television in American life.

The policy of massive retaliation was

indicative of the increased reliance on nuclear weapons.

The center of gravity of American farming after World War II shifted to

Texas, Arizona, and Mississippi.

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