Module 09: Alterations of Hormonal Regulatione

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Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH) results in excessive

renal retention of water without sodium retention

Neurological symptoms of SIADH are related to

decreased serum sodium concentrations

Which of the following is a serious complication of SIADH

Permanent neurological damage

Damage to the posterior pituitary caused by a cerebrovascular accident (stroke) results in _____ diabetes insipidus (DI)

Neurogenic

Classic symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI) include all of the following except

HTN

In adults, the most serious consequence of panhypopituitarism is the loss of

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Acromegaly is caused by increased secretion of

growth hormone

Prolactinomas (pituitary tumors that secrete prolactin) cause which of the following problems in women

Breast milk production without pregnancy

A clinician would suspect thyrotoxicosis if a patient presented with which symptoms

Weight loss and enlarged thyroid gland

Graves disease is characterized by

excessive production of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin

Graves disease is an example of a

type II hypersensitivity

In Graves disease, accumulation of edema in the orbit can lead to

AOTB :optic nerve damage, eye muscle palsies,exophthalmos

When evaluating the kidney function of an individual with diabetes insipidus (DI), the nurse would observe?

high volume urine output

What is the cause of exophthalmos in Graves disease

Degenerative changes in the muscle and orbital edema

The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in Graves disease is

low

The physiologic stress of illness or surgery can induce a severe response in individuals who have unrecognized and untreated thyrotoxicosisThe pathophysiology of thyroid storm, also known as thyrotoxic crisis, involves

fever and tachycardia leading to high-output heart failure

An endocrinologist orders a series of lab tests to assess thyroid functionLow levels of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) and high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are indicative of

primary hypothyroidism

If left untreated, congenital hypothyroidism results in

mental retardation and stunted growth

Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include all of the following

Diarrhea (weight gain, myxedema, lethargy)

The most common cause of primary hypothyroidism in adults is?

autoimmune thyroiditis

Which of the thyroid disorders can be caused by exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation

Thyroid cancer

Causes of myxedema coma include

untreated hypothyroidism

Thyroid carcinoma usually presents with what thyroid tissue changes

small nodules

Chronic hyperparathyroidism will lead to all of the following conditions excepts

weight loss

Which disorders can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism

Chronic renal failure

The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is

parathyroid gland injury or removal

One problem associated with untreated hypoparathyroidism is

muscle spasms

The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) involves

AOTA: autoimmune destruction of pancreaticbeta cells,production of antibodies against insulin,type IV hypersensitivity against pancreatic islet cells

A new diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is based on

fasting plasma glucose levels and glucose tolerance tests

Hyperglycemia and lipid abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are a result of

insulin resistance

Signs and symptoms common to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) include all of the following except

weight loss( polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria)

Signs and symptoms that a person with type 1 diabetes has administered too much insulin include

dizziness and confusion

Gestational diabetes can occur

during pregnancy

The purpose of monitoring glycosylated hemoglobin levels in persons with diabetes is to

monitor long-term serum glucose control

The symptom of polyuria in diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by

increased glucose in the urine

What effect does the presence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) have in diabetes

Tissue injury

The development of an acute metabolic acidosis from insulin deficiency is due to which processes

Fatty acid metabolism with ketone production

Alterations in lipid and protein metabolism lead to chronic complications of DM through which processes

AOTA: Activation of protein kinase C,Glycosylation, Induction of the polyol pathway

Chronic complications of DM include the following

AOTA: Peripheral neuropathies End-stage renal disease Coronary artery disease

Cushing disease is commonly caused by

ectopic production of ACTH from a lung tumor

Which alterations would you expect to find in a patient with untreated Cushing disease or syndrome

Truncal obesity

Which of the following problems arises from primary hyperaldosteronism

Hypertension

Metabolic abnormalities in Addison disease include all of the following except

Hypercalcemia

The most common cause of Addison disease is

autoimmune injury to the adrenal cortex

Mental status changes in people with Addison disease are caused by

hypoglycemia

Hypersecretion of androgens from an adrenal tumor in female children causes virilization, which is

the development of male sex characteristics

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