The study of human society and culture, the subfield that describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences
a society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior
5 characteristics of culture
socially learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated, and dynamic
6 functions of culture
1. distribution of goods & services
6. motivation to survive
the process by which a society's culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society
an organized group of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well-being
a distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, while still sharing common standards with that larger society
people who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs
why cultures change
population growth, technological innovation, environmental crisis, the intrusion of outsiders, or modification of behavior and values within the culture.
the belief that certain values from your own culture are better than others just because its what you're used to
the idea that one must suspend judgement of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms
a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork
the study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view
massive culture change that occurs in a society when it experiences intensive firsthand contact with a more powerful society
the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems often for a client
research that is community based and politically involved
a study of cultures of the recent past through oral histories, accounts of explorers, missionaries, and traders, and through analysis of records such as land titles, birth and death records, and other archival materials
the technique of learning a peoples culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over and extended period of time
types of interviewing
informal- unstructured open ended conversations in everyday life OR formal- structured question/answer sessions carefully notated as they occur
people one meets in the field and obtains information from
formal recorded agreement to participate in research
activities and objects used to draw out individuals and encourage them to recall and share information
data expressed as numbers, obtained by counting or measuring
descriptive data and involve characteristics that can't usually be counted
challenges of fieldwork
getting people to open up, learning their language, trying not to harm their society in any way
a complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive in their environment
changes in anatomy or physiology in a population as a response to environmental stimuli
culture change over time
The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
the pattern of behavior used by a society to obtain food in a particular environment
the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques
a mode of subsistence involving some combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods
intensive crop cultivation employing plows, fertilizers, and irrigation
cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
breeding and managing migratory herds of domesticated animals
slash & burn agriculture
an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops are then planted among the ashes
egalitarianism, communal property, flexible division of labor, keeping small groups in their own set region, typically fewer than 100 people. rarely exceeds more than 1 person per mile. MAINTAINING POPULATION OF _________ ___________.
an organized arrangement for producing, distributing, and consuming goods
division of labor
characteristic of civilizations in which different people perform different jobs
modes of exchange
Reciprocity, Redistribution, Market Exchange
reciprocity - generalized, balanced, negative
the exchange of goods and services of approximate equal value between two parties.
generalized does have have a calculated value or a time of repayment.
balanced- same time, same value.
negative- the aim is to get something for as little as possible (bargaining)
a mode of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated
the buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand
a showy display of wealth for social prestige
in NW USA, a ceremonial event in which a village chief publicly gives away stockpiled food and other goods that signify wealth
a cultural obligation compelling prosperous members of a community to give away goods, host public feasts, provide free service, or otherwise demonstrate generosity so that no one permanently accumulates significantly more wealth than anyone else
anything used to make payments for other goods and services as well as to measure their value; may be special purpose of multipurpose
labor by gender
women typically do housework and watch children. men do the jobs away from home that require a lot of strength and are dangerous.
an organized category of people based on age; every individual passes through a series of such categories over his or her lifetime
a formally established group of people born through a certain time span who move through a series of age grade categories together
common interest associations
associations that result from an act of joining based on sharing particular activities, objectives, values, or beliefs
societies in which everyone has about equal rank, access to, and power over basic resources
societies in which people are hierarchically divided and ranked into social strata or layers and do not share equally in basic resources that support survival, influence, and prestige
the condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group
a closed social class in which membership is determined by birth and fixed for life
upward or downward change in ones social class position in a stratified society
uncentralized political system
leaders don't have real power to force compliance with customs or rules, important decisions made as a group, no one exercising complete control over anything, small population
centralized political system
political power and authority and concentrated to a few people or groups of people, high technology, big population, high specialization of work
a relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a specific territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically independent
a range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory.
a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief, who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people
a centralized polity involving large numbers of people within a defined territory who are divided into social classes and organized and directed by a formal government that has the capacity and authority to make laws and to use force to defend the social order
functions of chiefs
head of ranked hierarchy of people, true authority figure, distributes land, recruits for military
A form or source of social control in which individuals make themselves conform to social expectations through the internalization of rules and norms; by enculturation, social rules and norms become part of the personalities of members.
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language
a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
The branch of anthropological linguistics that studies how languages are structured.
the smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language
the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language. they are distinct from phonemes which can alter meaning but have no meaning themselves
the study of how languages change over time.
In linguistics, a method for identifying the approximate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor; based on analyzing core vocabularies.
the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms
a branch of linguistics that studies the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other
changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another
varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to mutually intelligible
a series of symbols or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way
The source of social control that lies outside of the individual, in the form of individuals, groups, and institutions with the power to sanction behavior, such as parents, teachers, police, governments, and so on.