Anthro Midterm 3

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cultural anthropology

The study of human society and culture, the subfield that describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences

culture

a society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior

5 characteristics of culture

socially learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated, and dynamic

6 functions of culture

1. distribution of goods & services
2. enculturation
3. reproduction
4. safety
5. order
6. motivation to survive

enculturation

the process by which a society's culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society

society

an organized group of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well-being

subculture

a distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, while still sharing common standards with that larger society

ethnic group

people who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs

why cultures change

population growth, technological innovation, environmental crisis, the intrusion of outsiders, or modification of behavior and values within the culture.

ethnocentrism

the belief that certain values from your own culture are better than others just because its what you're used to

cultural relativism

the idea that one must suspend judgement of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms

ethnography

a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork

ethnology

the study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view

acculturation

massive culture change that occurs in a society when it experiences intensive firsthand contact with a more powerful society

applied anthropology

the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems often for a client

advocacy anthropology

research that is community based and politically involved

ethnohistory

a study of cultures of the recent past through oral histories, accounts of explorers, missionaries, and traders, and through analysis of records such as land titles, birth and death records, and other archival materials

participant observation

the technique of learning a peoples culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over and extended period of time

types of interviewing

informal- unstructured open ended conversations in everyday life OR formal- structured question/answer sessions carefully notated as they occur

anthropological informants

people one meets in the field and obtains information from

informed consent

formal recorded agreement to participate in research

eliciting devices

activities and objects used to draw out individuals and encourage them to recall and share information

quantitative data

data expressed as numbers, obtained by counting or measuring

qualitative data

descriptive data and involve characteristics that can't usually be counted

challenges of fieldwork

getting people to open up, learning their language, trying not to harm their society in any way

cultural adaptation

a complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive in their environment

biological adaptation

changes in anatomy or physiology in a population as a response to environmental stimuli

cultural evolution

culture change over time

cultural ecology

The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.

subsistence strategies

the pattern of behavior used by a society to obtain food in a particular environment

carrying capacity

the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques

foraging

a mode of subsistence involving some combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods

agriculture

intensive crop cultivation employing plows, fertilizers, and irrigation

horticulture

cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes

pastoralism

breeding and managing migratory herds of domesticated animals

slash & burn agriculture

an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops are then planted among the ashes

foraging societies

egalitarianism, communal property, flexible division of labor, keeping small groups in their own set region, typically fewer than 100 people. rarely exceeds more than 1 person per mile. MAINTAINING POPULATION OF _________ ___________.

economic system

an organized arrangement for producing, distributing, and consuming goods

division of labor

characteristic of civilizations in which different people perform different jobs

modes of exchange

Reciprocity, Redistribution, Market Exchange

reciprocity - generalized, balanced, negative

the exchange of goods and services of approximate equal value between two parties.
generalized does have have a calculated value or a time of repayment.
balanced- same time, same value.
negative- the aim is to get something for as little as possible (bargaining)

redistribution

a mode of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated

market exchange

the buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand

conspicuous consumption

a showy display of wealth for social prestige

potlatch

in NW USA, a ceremonial event in which a village chief publicly gives away stockpiled food and other goods that signify wealth

leveling mechanism

a cultural obligation compelling prosperous members of a community to give away goods, host public feasts, provide free service, or otherwise demonstrate generosity so that no one permanently accumulates significantly more wealth than anyone else

money

anything used to make payments for other goods and services as well as to measure their value; may be special purpose of multipurpose

labor by gender

women typically do housework and watch children. men do the jobs away from home that require a lot of strength and are dangerous.

age grade

an organized category of people based on age; every individual passes through a series of such categories over his or her lifetime

age set

a formally established group of people born through a certain time span who move through a series of age grade categories together

common interest associations

associations that result from an act of joining based on sharing particular activities, objectives, values, or beliefs

egalitarian society

societies in which everyone has about equal rank, access to, and power over basic resources

stratified society

societies in which people are hierarchically divided and ranked into social strata or layers and do not share equally in basic resources that support survival, influence, and prestige

social stratification

the condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group

caste system

a closed social class in which membership is determined by birth and fixed for life

social mobility

upward or downward change in ones social class position in a stratified society

uncentralized political system

leaders don't have real power to force compliance with customs or rules, important decisions made as a group, no one exercising complete control over anything, small population

centralized political system

political power and authority and concentrated to a few people or groups of people, high technology, big population, high specialization of work

bands

a relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a specific territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically independent

tribes

a range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory.

chiefdoms

a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief, who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people

states

a centralized polity involving large numbers of people within a defined territory who are divided into social classes and organized and directed by a formal government that has the capacity and authority to make laws and to use force to defend the social order

functions of chiefs

head of ranked hierarchy of people, true authority figure, distributes land, recruits for military

internalized controls

A form or source of social control in which individuals make themselves conform to social expectations through the internalization of rules and norms; by enculturation, social rules and norms become part of the personalities of members.

linguistics

the modern scientific study of all aspects of language

language

a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules

descriptive linguistics

The branch of anthropological linguistics that studies how languages are structured.

phonemes

the smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language

morphemes

the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language. they are distinct from phonemes which can alter meaning but have no meaning themselves

historical linguistics

the study of how languages change over time.

glottochronology

In linguistics, a method for identifying the approximate time that languages branched off from a common ancestor; based on analyzing core vocabularies.

linguistic nationalism

the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms

ethnolinguistics

a branch of linguistics that studies the relationships between language and culture and how they mutually influence and inform each other

code switching

changing from one mode of speech to another as the situation demands, whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another

dialect

varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to mutually intelligible

alphabet

a series of symbols or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way

externalized controls

The source of social control that lies outside of the individual, in the form of individuals, groups, and institutions with the power to sanction behavior, such as parents, teachers, police, governments, and so on.

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