factors that affect people's ability to affect themselves
age & development, lifestyle, health status, cognitive awareness, sensory-perceptual alternations, emotions, communication ability & safety awareness
what are some types of hazards?
infectious waste, hazardous waste, excessive noise, electrical equipment & radiation
who is at higher risk for falls?
the very young & the elderly
why are older adults at greater risks for falls?
unsteadiness, vision changes & vertigo
when do a majority of falls occur?
when a patient is weak or medicated
safety reminder advice(SRD)
physical or chemical means used to restrict a client's movement, activity or access to their body.
who regulates the use of SRD's?
omnibus budget reconciliation act
what should you consider when selecting a restraint?
least restrictive, does not interfere with treatment, readily changeable, safe for the client & discreet.
how long should retraint remain on a client?
no more than 24 hrs
what must you always get before using a restraint?
a Doctors order
what are some types of restraints?
jacket/vest, mitt/hand, limb, belt, psychotropic & siderails
what are some restraint guidelines?
know facility's restraint policies, require a physicians order, observe client, release restraints & assess and provide.
what is implemented in a restraint free enviroment?
nurse assignments, constant observation, bed locked & low, stimulation, elimination treatments ASAP, relaxation techniques & evaluate medications.
event in which a client is caught, trapped or entangled in the space in or above the bedrail, mattress, or hospital bed frame.
what are some causes of fires in the health care facility?
patient smoking or faulty electrical equiptment
in case of fire you should do what?
RACE; Rescue & remove all patients in immediate danger, Activate alarm, Contain the fire, Extinguish the fire or evacuate the facility.
what of extinguisher is type A?
paper, wood, or cloth fires
what is a type B fire extinguisher?
flammable liquid fires, grease & anesthetics
what is a type c fire extinguisher used for?
what can a type ABC fire extinguisher be used for?
any type of fire
what is the major cause of death in children under 5 years of age?
what are some items that cause accidental poisoning in the health care facility?
cleaning solutions, disinfectants & drugs
what are some safety hazards in the workplace?
biologic, chemical & physical hazards, blood & bodily fluid, contaminated needles and radiation
what are body mechanics?
filed of physiology that studies muscular action & function of muscles in maintaining the posture of the body.
what are the general considerations for performing a physical task?
pull, push or roll an object, movements are smooth & coordinated, use arms & legs, keep work at comfortable height and keep in good physical shape.
head is raised 45 to 60 degrees
patients head is raised 30 degrees
patient is sitting up at a 90 degree angle
patient lies on their side with knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest.
patient is lying on their back
patient is lying on their stomach
knee -chest position
pt is on knees with arms and head rested on a pillow.
patient is lying supine with hips flexed and thighs abducted
body and legs are inclined while the head is positioned lower
patient is on their side
this is any body action involving the muscles & joints in natural diractional movements
range of motion ROM
muscle strengthening & prevention of muscle atrophy
maintain joint flexibility and prevent contractures
how should you perform rom exercises?
twice a day, support extremity above and below the joint, stretch muscles by moving the body part & involve client in plannin exercise program
what are some joint rom exercises?
flexion, extension-hyperextension, abduction, adduction, supination, pronation & dorsiflexion
what is the chain of infection?
infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, method of transmission, portal of entry & susceptible host
grows only in the presence of oxygen
grows only in the absence of oxygen
smallest known agents that cause disease
most common disease, belongs to the plant family
single celled animals that in paasitic form are found in the intestinal tract, genitourinary tract & respiratory tract
person or animal who harbors and spreads an organism, causing disease in others.
originating from within the body or produced from internal causes
originating from outside the body or produced from external causes
nonliving material that can host and transfer pathogenic microoranisms
a living carrier that can transmit microorganisms
any natural habitat of a microorganism that promotes growth & reproduction
portal of exit
the way the organism leaves the reservoir
method of transmission
the way the organism gets the host
portal of entry
most organisms enter the body using the same route by which I left
what is th progressive course of the infection process?
incubation period, prodomal stage, illness stage & convalescence
limited to a specific pert of the body
affects the body as a whole
the body's cellular response to injury or infection
an infection aquired in a hospital or any other health care facility. Usually aquired within 72 hours
a group of techniques that destroy all microorganisms and their spores
a group of techniques that inhibit the growth and spread of pathogenic micoorganisms
tier 1 isolation
tier 2 isolation
transmission precautions(airborne, droplet & contact)
sterile to sterile, objects out field of vision or below waste are considered contaminated, if prolonged exposure to air, object touches wet surface and only one inch of sterile field is considered contaminated
destroys microorganisms, but does not destroy spores
method used to kill all microorganisms
what are the 2 types of sterilization?
physical & chemical
steam under pressure, boiling water, radiation or dry heat
gas, iodine, alcohol, and chlorine bleach
what are the steps for removing personal protective equiptment? (PPE)
remove gloves, remove eye protection, remove gown, remove mask & perform hand hygiene
the study of all factors that may be involved in the development of a disease